libreboot

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commit 8022472fef91c59975f4e6d57097081729f87903
parent bc677bc862eb6308b4af273fd1bb5fe58bfb19cc
Author: Alyssa Rosenzweig <alyssa@rosenzweig.io>
Date:   Fri, 17 Mar 2017 22:43:08 -0700

Typographically correct quotes

Diffstat:
docs/archive_old.md | 272++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++----------------------------------------
docs/bsd/freebsd.md | 18+++++++++---------
docs/bsd/netbsd.md | 24++++++++++++------------
docs/bsd/openbsd.md | 26+++++++++++++-------------
docs/depthcharge/index.md | 6+++---
docs/distros/index.md | 6+++---
docs/fsf-distros/index.md | 18+++++++++---------
docs/future/index.md | 46+++++++++++++++++++++++-----------------------
docs/future/old.md | 26+++++++++++++-------------
docs/git/index.md | 36++++++++++++++++++------------------
docs/gnulinux/configuring_parabola.md | 106++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++----------------------------------------
docs/gnulinux/encrypted_debian.md | 48++++++++++++++++++++++++------------------------
docs/gnulinux/encrypted_parabola.md | 68++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++----------------------------------
docs/gnulinux/grub_boot_installer.md | 30+++++++++++++++---------------
docs/gnulinux/grub_cbfs.md | 32++++++++++++++++----------------
docs/gnulinux/grub_hardening.md | 6+++---
docs/grub/index.md | 8++++----
docs/hardware/index.md | 2+-
docs/hardware/t60_heatsink.md | 2+-
docs/hardware/t60_lcd_15.md | 8++++----
docs/hardware/t60_security.md | 32++++++++++++++++----------------
docs/hardware/x60_heatsink.md | 2+-
docs/hardware/x60_keyboard.md | 2+-
docs/hardware/x60_security.md | 30+++++++++++++++---------------
docs/hcl/c201.md | 26+++++++++++++-------------
docs/hcl/gm45_remove_me.md | 46+++++++++++++++++++++++-----------------------
docs/hcl/index.md | 118++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++----------------------------------------
docs/hcl/kcma-d8.md | 12++++++------
docs/hcl/kfsn4-dre.md | 4++--
docs/hcl/kgpe-d16.md | 14+++++++-------
docs/hcl/r400.md | 4++--
docs/hcl/t400.md | 4++--
docs/hcl/t500.md | 6+++---
docs/hcl/x200.md | 36++++++++++++++++++------------------
docs/index.md | 16++++++++--------
docs/install/bbb_setup.md | 24++++++++++++------------
docs/install/c201.md | 12++++++------
docs/install/ga-g41m-es2l.md | 4++--
docs/install/index.md | 32++++++++++++++++----------------
docs/install/kgpe-d16.md | 2+-
docs/install/r400_external.md | 12++++++------
docs/install/rpi_setup.md | 24++++++++++++------------
docs/install/t400_external.md | 16++++++++--------
docs/install/t500_external.md | 12++++++------
docs/install/t60_unbrick.md | 24++++++++++++------------
docs/install/x200_external.md | 14+++++++-------
docs/install/x60_unbrick.md | 24++++++++++++------------
docs/install/x60tablet_unbrick.md | 22+++++++++++-----------
docs/misc/bbb_ehci.md | 10+++++-----
docs/misc/index.md | 20++++++++++----------
docs/misc/patch.md | 12++++++------
docs/release.md | 6+++---
52 files changed, 705 insertions(+), 705 deletions(-)

diff --git a/docs/archive_old.md b/docs/archive_old.md @@ -49,13 +49,13 @@ Machines supported in this release: support - See ***docs/hcl/\#supported\_x60t\_list*** for list of supported LCD panels - - It is unknown whether an X61 Tablet can have it\'s mainboard + - It is unknown whether an X61 Tablet can have it's mainboard replaced with an X60 Tablet motherboard. - **ThinkPad T60** (Intel GPU) (there are issues; see below): - See notes below for exceptions, and ***docs/hcl/\#supported\_t60\_list*** for known working LCD panels. - - It is unknown whether a T61 can have it\'s mainboard replaced + - It is unknown whether a T61 can have it's mainboard replaced with a T60 motherboard. - See ***docs/future/\#t60\_cpu\_microcode***. - T60P (and T60 laptops with ATI GPU) will likely never be @@ -91,7 +91,7 @@ Changes for this release, relative to r20150208 (earliest changes last, recent c - Updated flashrom (to SVN revision 1889) - X200 whitelist patch removed (merged upstream) - X200 whitelist modified to include X200S and X200 Tablet -- libreboot\_util: don\'t include cmos layout files (not needed +- libreboot\_util: don't include cmos layout files (not needed anymore) - **coreboot-libre: backport patches for X200 Tablet digitizer support** @@ -120,7 +120,7 @@ Changes for this release, relative to r20150208 (earliest changes last, recent c T400/T500 with the ATI+Intel hybrid GPU setup will work (ATI disabled, Intel permanently enabled). power\_on\_after\_fail nvram option added to all GM45 boards, defaulting to No, so that plugging - it AC doesn\'t boot up the system against the users will. Net20DC is + it AC doesn't boot up the system against the users will. Net20DC is now the default debug dongle on all boards (compatible with BBB). - demefactory (new utility): create GM45 factory.rom without the ME - ich9deblob: re-factor descriptor.c functions @@ -132,7 +132,7 @@ Changes for this release, relative to r20150208 (earliest changes last, recent c - docs/gnulinux/grub\_boot\_installer.html: Fix hazardous instruction - docs/tasks.html: Better categorization between intel/amd/arm - docs/install/bbb\_setup.html: notes about SPI flashing stability -- docs/install/bbb\_setup.html: more names for the 0.1\" cables +- docs/install/bbb\_setup.html: more names for the 0.1" cables - docs/install/\*\_external.html: add disclaimer about thermal paste - docs/install/bbb\_setup.html: Fix broken links - docs/install/bbb\_setup.html: preliminary notes about EHCI debug @@ -140,7 +140,7 @@ Changes for this release, relative to r20150208 (earliest changes last, recent c ME - docs/install/{t400,t500,r400}\_external.html: Notes about CPU compatibility -- Delete the ich9macchange script. It\'s useless, and confuses people +- Delete the ich9macchange script. It's useless, and confuses people - docs/hcl/gm45\_remove\_me.html: prioritize ich9gen executable path - docs/hcl/gm45\_remove\_me.html: prioritize changing mac address - docs/hcl/gm45\_remove\_me.html: less confusing notes about ich9gen @@ -162,16 +162,16 @@ Changes for this release, relative to r20150208 (earliest changes last, recent c upstream) - Patch to disable use of timestamps in coreboot no longer included (merged upstream) -- coreboot-libre: don\'t list vortex86ex kbd firmware as microcode +- coreboot-libre: don't list vortex86ex kbd firmware as microcode (list it separately) -- coreboot-libre: don\'t rm \*/early\_setup\_ss.h (these are not +- coreboot-libre: don't rm \*/early\_setup\_ss.h (these are not blobs) - coreboot-libre: add GPLv3 license to the findblobs script -- coreboot-libreboot: don\'t rm raminit\_tables (nahelem/sandybridge) +- coreboot-libreboot: don't rm raminit\_tables (nahelem/sandybridge) (they are not blobs) -- coreboot-libre: don\'t delete the .spd.hex files (they are not +- coreboot-libre: don't delete the .spd.hex files (they are not blobs) -- build/release/archives: don\'t put rmodtool in libreboot\_util +- build/release/archives: don't put rmodtool in libreboot\_util - docs/install/x200\_external.html: recommend installing GNU+Linux at the end - docs/install/x200\_external.html: add more photos, improve @@ -210,8 +210,8 @@ Changes for this release, relative to r20150208 (earliest changes last, recent c not needed in libreboot\_src (release archive) because it contains a coreboot revision that has already been deblobbed. - flash (script): Use *build* instead of *DEBLOB* to know if in src -- docs/install/r400\_external.html: Show images, don\'t link. -- docs/install/x200\_external.html: Show images, don\'t link. +- docs/install/r400\_external.html: Show images, don't link. +- docs/install/x200\_external.html: Show images, don't link. - docs/install/bbb\_setup.html: Show images, instead of linking - Documentation: optimize all images (reduce file sizes) - Remove download links from the release page (and the archive page) - @@ -244,7 +244,7 @@ Changes for this release, relative to r20150208 (earliest changes last, recent c - build-release: remove the bin/ directory from libreboot\_util - cleandeps: delete the bin/ directory - buildrom-withgrub: create the bin directory if it does not exist -- coreboot-libre: don\'t use git for version timestamp +- coreboot-libre: don't use git for version timestamp - i945-pwm: add clean command to Makefile - i945-pwm: add -lz to Makefile - docs/install/x200\_external: Mention GPIO33 non-descriptor mode @@ -253,7 +253,7 @@ Changes for this release, relative to r20150208 (earliest changes last, recent c - build-release: Separate ROM images into individual archives - build-release: rename libreboot\_bin to libreboot\_util - **New board:** ThinkPad R400 support added to libreboot. -- bbb\_setup.html: tell user to use libreboot\'s own flashrom +- bbb\_setup.html: tell user to use libreboot's own flashrom @@ -273,13 +273,13 @@ Machines supported in this release: digitizer support - See **hcl/\#supported\_x60t\_list** for list of supported LCD panels - - It is unknown whether an X61 Tablet can have it\'s mainboard + - It is unknown whether an X61 Tablet can have it's mainboard replaced with an X60 Tablet motherboard. - **Lenovo ThinkPad T60** (Intel GPU) (there are issuesinstall/x200\_external.html; see below): - See notes below for exceptions, and **hcl/\#supported\_t60\_list** for known working LCD panels. - - It is unknown whether a T61 can have it\'s mainboard replaced + - It is unknown whether a T61 can have it's mainboard replaced with a T60 motherboard. - See **future/\#t60\_cpu\_microcode**. - T60P (and T60 laptops with ATI GPU) will likely never be @@ -302,7 +302,7 @@ Revisions for r20150208 (relative to r20150126) ----------------------------------------------- This is a maintenance release (polishing) based on r20150126. Users who -installed r20150126 don\'t really need to update to this release. +installed r20150126 don't really need to update to this release. - buildrom-withgrub: use gnulove.jpg background on 16:10 laptops (MacBook2,1 and X200) @@ -313,7 +313,7 @@ installed r20150126 don\'t really need to update to this release. - grub-assemble: merge scripts into a single script gen.sh - Documentation: implement theme, drastically improve readability - docs/hcl/: update list of compatible T60 LCD panels -- docs/: more clarification of libreboot\'s stated purpose. +- docs/: more clarification of libreboot's stated purpose. - build-release: include the commitid file in the release archives - docs/: Further emphasize the GNU+Linux requirement. - lenovobios\_firstflash: fix BASH errors @@ -339,12 +339,12 @@ This is a bug fix release based on r20150124. It contains a few small changes: - grub.cfg: hardcode the list of partitions to search (speeds up - booting considerably. GRUB regexp isn\'t very well optimized) + booting considerably. GRUB regexp isn't very well optimized) - Docs (x200.html hcl): Remove incorrect information - Documentation (bbb\_setup.html): Fix typos - build-release: delete ich9fdgbe\_{4m,8m}.bin files from ich9gen - These were accidentically included in the r20150124 release. - They are generated from ich9gen so it\'s ok, but they don\'t + They are generated from ich9gen so it's ok, but they don't need to be in the archive. - Documentation (grub\_cbfs.html): Looping in libreboot\_grub.cfg (Add notes about it if the user copied from grub.cfg in CBFS.) @@ -443,7 +443,7 @@ Changes for this release (latest changes first, earliest changes last) - scripts (all): add proper error checking (fail fast, fail early. Do not continue if there are errors) - buildrom-withgrub: rename image to boardname\_layout\_romtype.rom -- buildrom-withgrub: don\'t move cbfstool, execute directly +- buildrom-withgrub: don't move cbfstool, execute directly - resources/utilities/grub-assemble: add French Dvorak (BEPO) keyboard layout. - Documentation: add docs/hardware/x60\_keyboard.html (show how to @@ -459,7 +459,7 @@ Changes for this release (latest changes first, earliest changes last) - This was put there before for users upgrading from libreboot r5 to r6, but also allows the user to flash the wrong image. For example, the user could flash a T60 image on an X60, thus - bricking the system. It\'s almost certain that most people have + bricking the system. It's almost certain that most people have upgraded by now, so remove this potentially dangerous option. - Documentation: update compatibility list for X60T LCD panels. - docs/release.html: add note about X60 Tablet board in X60/X60s @@ -516,9 +516,9 @@ Changes for this release (latest changes first, earliest changes last) - Cleaned up the documentation, removed unneeded files. - ec/lenovo/h8 (x60/x60s/x60t/t60): Enable wifi/bluetooth/wwan/touchpad/trackpoint by default. -- Documentation: Updated list of T60 LCDs (Samsung LTN150XG 15\" XGA +- Documentation: Updated list of T60 LCDs (Samsung LTN150XG 15" XGA listed as non-working). -- builddeps-coreboot: Don\'t build libpayload (not needed. This was +- builddeps-coreboot: Don't build libpayload (not needed. This was leftover by mistake, when trying out the TINT payload). - Replaced most diff files (patches) for coreboot with gerrit checkouts (cherry-pick). @@ -529,8 +529,8 @@ Changes for this release (latest changes first, earliest changes last) - Documentation: configuring\_parabola.html: basic post-install steps for Parabola GNU+Linux (helpful, since libreboot development is being moved to Parabola at the time of writing). -- builddeps-coreboot: use \'make crossgcc-i386\' instead of \'make - crossgcc\'. Libreboot only targets x86 at the time of writing. +- builddeps-coreboot: use 'make crossgcc-i386' instead of 'make + crossgcc'. Libreboot only targets x86 at the time of writing. - ROM images no longer include SeaBIOS. Instead, the user adds it afterwards. Documentation and scripts updated. - docs/images/encrypted\_parabola.html: Notes about linux-libre-grsec @@ -592,11 +592,11 @@ Revisions for r20140911 (7th beta) (11th September 2014) -------------------------------------------------------- - The changes below were made in a git repository, unlike in previous - releases. Descriptions below are copied from \'git log\'. + releases. Descriptions below are copied from 'git log'. - Update .gitignore for new dependencies. - Use a submodule for i945-pwm. -- Don\'t clean packages that fail or don\'t need cleaning. -- Don\'t clean i945-pwm, it\'s not needed. +- Don't clean packages that fail or don't need cleaning. +- Don't clean i945-pwm, it's not needed. - Regression fix: Parabola live ISO boot issues - Re-enable background images in ISOLINUX/SYSLINUX GRUB parser menus - Regression fix: Re-add CD-ROM (ata0) in GRUB @@ -625,7 +625,7 @@ Revisions for r20140903 (6th beta) (3rd September 2014) changed to get-edid) - Documentation: added images/x60\_lcd\_change/ (pics only for now) - Added gcry\_serpent and gcry\_whirlpool to the GRUB module list in - the \'build\' script (for luks users) + the 'build' script (for luks users) - **Libreboot is now based on a new coreboot version from August 23rd, 2014:\ Merged commits (relates to boards that were already supported in @@ -667,7 +667,7 @@ Revisions for r20140903 (6th beta) (3rd September 2014) - Updated flashrom to new version from August 20th, 2014 - Added getseabios and builddeps-seabios (builddeps and getall were also updated) - - Added instructions to \'buildrom-withgrub\' to include + - Added instructions to 'buildrom-withgrub' to include bios.bin.elf and vgaroms/vgabios.bin from SeaBIOS inside the ROM. - Added seabios (and sgavgabios) to grub as payload option in menu @@ -691,15 +691,15 @@ Revisions for r20140903 (6th beta) (3rd September 2014) systems. - Added instructions for it in builddeps, builddeps-i945pwm, builddeb and cleandeps -- \'build\' script: removed the parts that generated sha512sum +- 'build' script: removed the parts that generated sha512sum manifests (not needed, since release tarballs are GPG-signed) -- \'build\' script: removed the parts that generated libreboot\_meta +- 'build' script: removed the parts that generated libreboot\_meta directory (not needed anymore, since \_meta will be hosted in git) - Updated \#build\_meta (and other parts of documentation) to accomodate this change. - Documentation: simplified (refactored) the notes in \#rom -- \'build\' script: removed the parts that generated libreboot\_bin - and added them to a new script: \'build-release\' +- 'build' script: removed the parts that generated libreboot\_bin + and added them to a new script: 'build-release' - Documentation: \#build updated to reflect the above. - ~~Added all gcry\_\* modules to grub (luks/cryptomount): gcry\_arcfour gcry\_camellia gcry\_crc gcry\_dsa gcry\_md4 @@ -707,7 +707,7 @@ Revisions for r20140903 (6th beta) (3rd September 2014) gcry\_twofish gcry\_blowfish gcry\_cast5 gcry\_des gcry\_idea gcry\_md5 gcry\_rijndael gcry\_rsa gcry\_serpent gcry\_sha256 gcry\_tiger gcry\_whirlpool~~ -- Added GNUtoo\'s list of GRUB modules (includes all of the gcry\_\* +- Added GNUtoo's list of GRUB modules (includes all of the gcry\_\* modules above), cryptomount should be working now. - Removed builddeb-bucts and builddeb-flashrom, merged them with builddeb ( updated accordingly) @@ -721,7 +721,7 @@ Revisions for r20140903 (6th beta) (3rd September 2014) - build-release: flashrom, nvramtool, cbfstool and bucts are no longer provided pre-compiled in binary archives, and are now in source form only. (to maximize distro compatibility). -- \'build\' script: replaced grub.elf assembly instructons, it is now +- 'build' script: replaced grub.elf assembly instructons, it is now handled by a utility added under resources/utilities/grub-assemble - Moved resources/grub/keymap to resources/utilities/grub-assemble/keymap, and updated that utility @@ -729,7 +729,7 @@ Revisions for r20140903 (6th beta) (3rd September 2014) - Documentation: removed useless links to pictures of keyboard layouts and unmodified layouts. - Removed all unused fonts from dejavu-fonts-ttf-2.34/ directory -- \'buildrom-withgrub\' script: updated it to create 2 sets of ROMs +- 'buildrom-withgrub' script: updated it to create 2 sets of ROMs for each system: one with text-mode, one with coreboot framebuffer. - Documentation: updated \#rom to reflect the above - Deleted unused README and COPYING file from main directory @@ -768,7 +768,7 @@ Corrections to r20140811 (5th beta) (11th August 2014) Revisions for r20140811 (5th beta) (11th August 2014) ----------------------------------------------------- -- build: added \'luks\', \'lvm\', \'cmosdump\' and \'cmostest\' to the +- build: added 'luks', 'lvm', 'cmosdump' and 'cmostest' to the list of modules for grub.elf - Documentation: added pics showing T60 unbricking (still need to write a tutorial) @@ -781,7 +781,7 @@ Revisions for r20140811 (5th beta) (11th August 2014) - Documentation: added **install/t60\_security.html** - Documentation: added **install/t60\_heatsink.html** - Documentation: Renamed RELEASE.html to release.html -- Documentation: removed pcmcia reference in x60\_security.html (it\'s +- Documentation: removed pcmcia reference in x60\_security.html (it's cardbus) - Documentation: added preliminary information about randomized seal (for physical intrusion detection) in x60\_security.html and @@ -802,7 +802,7 @@ Revisions for r20140811 (5th beta) (11th August 2014) - Split resources/libreboot/patch/gitdiff into separate patch files (getcb script updated to accomodate this change). - Re-added .git files to bucts -- Fixed the oversight where macbook21\_firstflash wasn\'t included in +- Fixed the oversight where macbook21\_firstflash wasn't included in binary archives - Release archives are now compressed using .tar.xz for better compression @@ -813,7 +813,7 @@ Revisions for r20140729 (4th beta) (29th July 2014) - Documentation: improved (more explanations, background info) in docs/security/x60\_security.html (courtesy of Denis Carikli) - MacBook2,1 tested (confirmed) -- macbook21: Added script \'macbook21\_firstflash\' for flashing +- macbook21: Added script 'macbook21\_firstflash' for flashing libreboot while Apple EFI firmware is running. - Documentation: macbook21: added software-based flashing instructions for flashing libreboot while Apple EFI firmware is running. @@ -886,7 +886,7 @@ Revisions for r20140716 (2nd beta) (16th July 2014) --------------------------------------------------- - Deleted all git-related files from the coreboot directory. This was - necessary because with those it is possible to run \'git diff\' + necessary because with those it is possible to run 'git diff' which shows the changes made in the form of a patch (diff format); this includes the blobs that were deleted during deblobbing. @@ -894,36 +894,36 @@ Revisions for r20140711 (1st beta) (11th July 2014) --------------------------------------------------- - Initial release (new coreboot base, dated 1st June 2014. See - \'getcb\' script for reference) + 'getcb' script for reference) - DEBLOBBED coreboot -- Removed the part from memtest86+ \'make\' where it tried to connect +- Removed the part from memtest86+ 'make' where it tried to connect to some scp server while compiling. (commented out line 24 in the Makefile) - X60 now uses a single .config (for coreboot) - X60 now uses a single grub.cfg (for grub memdisk) - X60 now uses a single grub.elf (payload) -- Added new native graphics code for X60 (replaces the old \'replay\' +- Added new native graphics code for X60 (replaces the old 'replay' code) from Vladimir Serbinenko: 5320/9 from review.coreboot.org - T60 is now supported, with native graphics. (5345/4 from review.coreboot.org, cherry-picked on top of 5320/9 checkout) - Added macbook2,1 support (from Mono Moosbart and Vladimir - Serbinenko) from review.coreboot.org (see \'getcb\' script to know + Serbinenko) from review.coreboot.org (see 'getcb' script to know how that was done) - Documentation: added information linking to correct page and talking about which models are supported. - Added resources/libreboot/config/macbook21config - - macbook21: Added \'build-macbook21\' script and linked to it in - \'build\' (ROMs included under bin/macbook21/) + - macbook21: Added 'build-macbook21' script and linked to it in + 'build' (ROMs included under bin/macbook21/) - macbook21: Removed dd instructions from build-macbook21 script (macbook21 does not need bucts when flashing libreboot while Apple EFI firmware is running) - Documentation: Added macbook21 ROMs to the list of ROMs in docs/\#rom - - Documentation: Write documentation linking to Mono Moosbart\'s + - Documentation: Write documentation linking to Mono Moosbart's macbook21 and parabola page (and include a copy) -- Documentation: added a copy of Mono\'s Parabola install guide (for +- Documentation: added a copy of Mono's Parabola install guide (for macbook21 with Apple EFI firmware) and linked in in main index. -- Documentation: added a copy of Mono\'s Coreboot page (for macbook21) +- Documentation: added a copy of Mono's Coreboot page (for macbook21) and linked it in main index. - T60: Copy CD option from the grub.cfg files for T60 \*serial\*.rom images into the grub configs for non-serial images. (T60s have @@ -947,55 +947,55 @@ Revisions for r20140711 (1st beta) (11th July 2014) - Improved thinkpad\_acpi support (from coreboot ): xsensors shows more information. - From 4650/29 in review.coreboot.org (merged in coreboot - \'master\' on June 1st 2014) + 'master' on June 1st 2014) - Merged changes for digitizer (X60 Tablet) and IR (X60 and T60) based on 5243/17, 5242/17 and 5239/19 from review.coreboot.org - (see ./resources/libreboot/patch/gitdiff and ./getcb) - Documentation: added information about building flashrom using - \'builddeps-flashrom\' script. + 'builddeps-flashrom' script. - Re-created resources/libreboot/config/x60config - Re-created resources/libreboot/config/t60config -- Added \'x60tconfig\' in resources/libreboot/config (because X60 +- Added 'x60tconfig' in resources/libreboot/config (because X60 Tablet has different information about serial/model/version in - \'dmidecode\') - - Added \'build-x60t\' script - - Updated \'build\' script to use \'build-x60t\' + 'dmidecode') + - Added 'build-x60t' script + - Updated 'build' script to use 'build-x60t' - Documentation: added to \#config section the section \#config\_x60t (libreboot configuration and dmidecode info) - Documentation: added x60t ROMs to the list of ROMs -- Tidied up the \'builddeps\' script (easier to read) -- Tidied up the \'cleandeps\' script (easier to read) -- Annotated the \'buildall\' script -- Added \'getcb\' script for getting coreboot revision used from git, +- Tidied up the 'builddeps' script (easier to read) +- Tidied up the 'cleandeps' script (easier to read) +- Annotated the 'buildall' script +- Added 'getcb' script for getting coreboot revision used from git, and patching it. -- Added \'getgrub\' script for getting the GRUB revision used from +- Added 'getgrub' script for getting the GRUB revision used from git, and patching it. -- Added \'getmt86\' script for getting the memtest86+ version used, +- Added 'getmt86' script for getting the memtest86+ version used, and patching it. -- Added \'getbucts\' script for getting the bucts version used. -- Added \'getflashrom\' script for getting the flashrom version used, +- Added 'getbucts' script for getting the bucts version used. +- Added 'getflashrom' script for getting the flashrom version used, and patching it -- Added \'getall\' script which runs all of the other \'get\' scripts. -- Add instructions to the \'build\' script to prepare +- Added 'getall' script which runs all of the other 'get' scripts. +- Add instructions to the 'build' script to prepare libreboot\_meta.tar.gz - New archive: libreboot\_meta.tar.gz - minimal archive, using the - \'get\' scripts to download all the dependencies (coreboot, + 'get' scripts to download all the dependencies (coreboot, memtest, grub and so on). -- Documentation: added information about where \'build\' script +- Documentation: added information about where 'build' script prepares the libreboot\_meta.tar.gz archive. -- Documentation: added information about how to use the \'get\' +- Documentation: added information about how to use the 'get' scripts in libreboot\_meta.tar.gz (to generate libreboot\_src.tar.gz) - - Documentation: mention that meta doesn\'t create libreboot\_src/ + - Documentation: mention that meta doesn't create libreboot\_src/ directory, but that libreboot\_meta itself becomes the same. - Documentation: advise to rename libreboot\_meta to - libreboot\_src after running \'getall\'. -- Annotated the \'builddeb\' script, to say what each set of + libreboot\_src after running 'getall'. +- Annotated the 'builddeb' script, to say what each set of dependencies are for. - Separated bucts/flashrom builddeb sections into separate scripts: builddeb-flashrom, builddeb-bucts. - Documentation: Updated relevant parts based on the above. -- Added instructions to \'build\' script for including builddeb-bucts +- Added instructions to 'build' script for including builddeb-bucts and builddeb-flashrom in libreboot\_bin - Updated flashrom checkout (r1822 2014-06-16) from SVN (http://flashrom.org/Downloads). @@ -1008,39 +1008,39 @@ Revisions for r20140711 (1st beta) (11th July 2014) - Updated builddeps to build flashrom\_lenovobios\_sst and flashrom\_lenovobios\_macronix, for X60/T60 users with Lenovo BIOS - - moved the flashrom build instructions from \'builddeps\' and put - them in \'builddeps-flashrom\', excecuting that from - \'builddeps\'. + - moved the flashrom build instructions from 'builddeps' and put + them in 'builddeps-flashrom', excecuting that from + 'builddeps'. - Added builddeps-flashrom to libreboot\_bin.tar.gz - flashrom: added patched flashchips.c to resources/flashrom/patch (automatically use correct macronix chip on libreboot, without using - \'-c\' switch) - - removed \'MX25L1605\' and \'MX25L1605A/MX25L1606E\' entries in + '-c' switch) + - removed 'MX25L1605' and 'MX25L1605A/MX25L1606E' entries in flashchips.c for the patched version of flashchips.c - - added instructions to \'builddeps-flashrom\' to automatically + - added instructions to 'builddeps-flashrom' to automatically use this modified flashchips.c in the default build - Added builddeb to libreboot\_bin.tar.gz -- Moved \'bucts\' build instructions from builddeps to builddeps-bucts - - builddeps now runs \'builddeps-bucts\' instead - - Added \'builddeps-bucts\' to libreboot\_bin.tar.gz - - Documentation: Added information about using \'builddep-bucts\' +- Moved 'bucts' build instructions from builddeps to builddeps-bucts + - builddeps now runs 'builddeps-bucts' instead + - Added 'builddeps-bucts' to libreboot\_bin.tar.gz + - Documentation: Added information about using 'builddep-bucts' to build the BUC.TS utility. -- Added \'lenovobios\_firstflash\' and \'lenovobios\_secondflash\' +- Added 'lenovobios\_firstflash' and 'lenovobios\_secondflash' scripts - - Added instructions to \'build\' script for including those files + - Added instructions to 'build' script for including those files in libreboot\_bin - Documentation: Add tutorial for flashing while Lenovo BIOS is running (on X60/T60) -- Added \'flash\' script (make sure to run builddeps-flashrom first) +- Added 'flash' script (make sure to run builddeps-flashrom first) which (while libreboot is already running) can use flashrom to flash a ROM - - eg: \"sudo ./flash bin/x60/coreboot\_serial\_ukdvorak.rom\" - equivalent to \"sudo ./flashrom/flashrom -p internal -w - bin/x60/coreboot\_uk\_dvorak.rom\" - - updated \'build\' script to include the \'flash\' script in + - eg: "sudo ./flash bin/x60/coreboot\_serial\_ukdvorak.rom" + equivalent to "sudo ./flashrom/flashrom -p internal -w + bin/x60/coreboot\_uk\_dvorak.rom" + - updated 'build' script to include the 'flash' script in libreboot\_bin.tar.gz - Documentation: replaced default flashrom tutorial to recommend the - \'flash\' script instead. + 'flash' script instead. - Re-add cbfstool source code back into libreboot\_bin.tar.gz, as cbfstool\_standalone - Patched that version to work (able to be built and used) without @@ -1050,38 +1050,38 @@ Revisions for r20140711 (1st beta) (11th July 2014) - see coreboot/util/cbfstool/rmodule.c and then the patched version in resources/cbfstool/patch/rmodule.c - see coreboot/src/include/rmodule-defs.h and the rule in - \'build\' for including this in + 'build' for including this in ../libreboot\_bin/cbfstool\_standalone - - Added instructions to \'build\' script for applying this patch + - Added instructions to 'build' script for applying this patch to the cbfstool\_standalone source in libreboot\_bin - - Added instructions to \'build\' script for then re-compiling + - Added instructions to 'build' script for then re-compiling cbfstool\_standalone in libreboot\_bin after applying the patch - - Added a \'builddeps-cbfstool\' script (in src, but only used in - bin and put in bin by \'build\') that compiles + - Added a 'builddeps-cbfstool' script (in src, but only used in + bin and put in bin by 'build') that compiles cbfstool\_standalone in libreboot\_bin (make), moves the cbfstool and rmodtool binaries into libreboot\_bin/ and then - does \'make clean\' in libreboot\_bin/cbfstool\_standalone - - Updated the \'build\' script to put \'builddeps-cbfstool\' in + does 'make clean' in libreboot\_bin/cbfstool\_standalone + - Updated the 'build' script to put 'builddeps-cbfstool' in libreboot\_bin - - Updated the \'build\' script in the cbfstool (standalone) part + - Updated the 'build' script in the cbfstool (standalone) part to accomodate the above. - Documentation: added notes about cbfstool (standalone) in libreboot\_bin - Documentation: made docs/gnulinux/grub\_cbfs.html slightly easier to follow. -- Annotate the \'build\*\' scripts with \'echo\' commands, to help the +- Annotate the 'build\*' scripts with 'echo' commands, to help the user understand what it actually happening during the build process. -- Documentation: added information about how \'dmidecode\' data was +- Documentation: added information about how 'dmidecode' data was put in the coreboot configs - - Documentation: In fact, document how the \'config\' files in + - Documentation: In fact, document how the 'config' files in resources/libreboot/config/ were created - Documentation: Added information about which ThinkPad T60s are supported, and which are not. - Documentation: added information about LCD inverters (for upgrading - the LCD panel on a T60 14.1\' XGA or 15.1\' XGA) - - it\'s FRU P/N 41W1478 (on T60 14.1\") so this was added to the + the LCD panel on a T60 14.1' XGA or 15.1' XGA) + - it's FRU P/N 41W1478 (on T60 14.1") so this was added to the docs. - - it\'s P/N 42T0078 FRU 42T0079 or P/N 41W1338 (on T60 15.1\") so + - it's P/N 42T0078 FRU 42T0079 or P/N 41W1338 (on T60 15.1") so this was added to the docs. - Documentation: added information about names of LCD panels for T60 to the relevant parts of the documentation. @@ -1090,22 +1090,22 @@ Revisions for r20140711 (1st beta) (11th July 2014) - Documentation: added pictures of keyboard layouts (US/UK Qwerty/Dvorak) to the ROM list, to let the user compare with their own keyboard. -- Move the coreboot build instructions in \'builddeps\' into - \'builddeps-coreboot\' and link it in \'builddeps\' - - Link to \'builddeps-coreboot\' in final stage of \'getcb\' -- Move GRUB build instructions from \'builddeps\' into - \'builddeps-grub\', link from \'builddeps\' - - Link to \'builddeps-grub\' in final stage of \'getgrub\' -- Move MemTest86+ build instructions from \'builddeps\' into - \'builddeps-memtest86\', link from \'builddeps\' - - Link to \'builddeps-memtest86\' in final stage of \'getmt86\' -- made \'build\' script put resources/ directory in libreboot\_bin, to +- Move the coreboot build instructions in 'builddeps' into + 'builddeps-coreboot' and link it in 'builddeps' + - Link to 'builddeps-coreboot' in final stage of 'getcb' +- Move GRUB build instructions from 'builddeps' into + 'builddeps-grub', link from 'builddeps' + - Link to 'builddeps-grub' in final stage of 'getgrub' +- Move MemTest86+ build instructions from 'builddeps' into + 'builddeps-memtest86', link from 'builddeps' + - Link to 'builddeps-memtest86' in final stage of 'getmt86' +- made 'build' script put resources/ directory in libreboot\_bin, to make builddeps-flashrom work in libreboot\_bin -- Removed instructions for building source code in the \'get\' script - (they don\'t really belong there) +- Removed instructions for building source code in the 'get' script + (they don't really belong there) - Added libfuse-dev and liblzma-dev to the list of GRUB dependencies - in \'builddeb\' script. -- Converted the \'RELEASE\' file to \'docs/RELEASE.html\' + in 'builddeb' script. +- Converted the 'RELEASE' file to 'docs/RELEASE.html' - Added those dependencies to builddeb script (for GRUB part): gawk libdevmapper-dev libtool libfreetype6-dev - Added to build script the instruction at the end to create a @@ -1151,7 +1151,7 @@ Revision notes (22nd June 2014) - updated GRUB (git 4b8b9135f1676924a8458da528d264bbc7bbb301, 20th April 2014) -- Made \"DeJavu Sans Mono\" the default font in GRUB (fixes border +- Made "DeJavu Sans Mono" the default font in GRUB (fixes border corruption). - re-added background image in GRUB (meditating GNU) - added 6 more images: @@ -1173,11 +1173,11 @@ Revision notes (22nd June 2014) - tidied up the menu entries in GRUB - tidied up the root directory of X60\_source/, sorted more files into subdirectories -- improved the commenting inside the \'build\' script (should make +- improved the commenting inside the 'build' script (should make modifying it easier) - Renamed X60\_binary.tar.gz and X60\_source.tar.gz to libreboot\_bin.tar.gz and libreboot\_src.tar.gz, respectively. -- Replaced \"GNU GRUB version\" with \"FREE AS IN FREEDOM\" on GNU +- Replaced "GNU GRUB version" with "FREE AS IN FREEDOM" on GNU GRUB start screen. - Added sha512.txt files in libreboot\_src and libreboot\_bin. (inside the archives) @@ -1187,8 +1187,8 @@ Revision notes (22nd June 2014) Revision notes (11th June 2014): -------------------------------- -- removed \'CD\' boot option from coreboot.rom (not needed) -- removed \'processor.max\_cstate=2\' and \'idle=halt\' options (see +- removed 'CD' boot option from coreboot.rom (not needed) +- removed 'processor.max\_cstate=2' and 'idle=halt' options (see README.powertop file) Revision notes (5th June 2014): @@ -1196,7 +1196,7 @@ Revision notes (5th June 2014): - added backlight support (Fn+Home and Fn+End) on X60 - fixed broken/unstable 3D when using kernel 3.12 or higher -- (see \'BACKPORT\' file) +- (see 'BACKPORT' file) Revision notes (9th March 2015): -------------------------------- @@ -1216,13 +1216,13 @@ Development notes - With serial output disabled and memtest86+ excluded (faster boot speeds) (debugging disabled) - Reduced impact on battery life: - - \'processor.max\_cstate=2\' instead of \'idle=halt\' for booting + - 'processor.max\_cstate=2' instead of 'idle=halt' for booting default kernel - coreboot.rom (faster boot speeds, debugging disabled): - - Disabled coreboot serial output (Console-&gt; in \"make - menuconfig\") + - Disabled coreboot serial output (Console-&gt; in "make + menuconfig") - Set coreboot debug level to 0 instead of 8 (Console-&gt; in - \"make menuconfig\") + "make menuconfig") - Changed GRUB timeout to 1 second instead of 2 (in grub.cfg - Removed background image in GRUB. - Removed memtest86+ payload (since it relies on serial output) @@ -1232,7 +1232,7 @@ Development notes - has serial port enabled. How this is achieved (from X60\_source): Turn on debugging level to 8, and enable serial output -- (in Console-&gt; in coreboot \"make menuconfig\") +- (in Console-&gt; in coreboot "make menuconfig") - (and build with grub\_serial.cfg and grub\_memdisk\_serial.cfg) [Back to top of page.](#pagetop) @@ -1264,10 +1264,10 @@ Development notes - Added new menu entries: - Parse ISOLINUX config (USB) - Parse ISOLINUX config (CD) - - Added \'cat\' module for use on GRUB command line. -- \"set pager=1\" is set in grub.cfg, for less-like functionality + - Added 'cat' module for use on GRUB command line. +- "set pager=1" is set in grub.cfg, for less-like functionality -The \"Parse\" options read ./isolinux/isolinux.cfg on a CD or USB, and +The "Parse" options read ./isolinux/isolinux.cfg on a CD or USB, and automatically converts it to a grub config and switches to the boot menu of that distro. This makes booting ISOs \*much\* easier than before. diff --git a/docs/bsd/freebsd.md b/docs/bsd/freebsd.md @@ -4,11 +4,11 @@ How to install FreeBSD on a libreboot system This section relates to preparing, booting and installing FreeBSD on your libreboot system, using nothing more than a USB flash drive (and -*dd*). They\'ve only been tested on a Lenovo ThinkPad x200. +*dd*). They've only been tested on a Lenovo ThinkPad x200. It is expected that you use text mode in libreboot (txtmode images), for the early boot process in FreeBSD. **Booting the installer results in a -red flickering text display, and doesn\'t boot.** +red flickering text display, and doesn't boot.** Thanks go to ioxcide in [this Reddit post](https://www.reddit.com/r/BSD/comments/53jt70/libreboot_and_bsds/) @@ -16,7 +16,7 @@ for the initial instructions. TODO: test FreeBSD more extensively, and make sure it works (and fix it if it does not). Instructions are provided here, to boot and install -FreeBSD but we\'re not sure whether it is currently fully compatible +FreeBSD but we're not sure whether it is currently fully compatible with libreboot. - [Prepare the USB drive (in FreeBSD)](#prepare) @@ -66,7 +66,7 @@ Connect the USB drive. Check dmesg:\ Check to confirm which drive it is, for example, if you think its sd3:\ **\$ disklabel sd3** -Check that it wasn\'t automatically mounted. If it was, unmount it. For +Check that it wasn't automatically mounted. If it was, unmount it. For example:\ **\$ doas umount /dev/sd3i**\ @@ -90,7 +90,7 @@ Connect the USB drive. Check dmesg:\ Check lsblk to confirm which drive it is:\ **\$ lsblk** -Check that it wasn\'t automatically mounted. If it was, unmount it. For +Check that it wasn't automatically mounted. If it was, unmount it. For example:\ **\$ sudo umount /dev/sdX\***\ **\# umount /dev/sdX\*** @@ -153,16 +153,16 @@ TODO Troubleshooting =============== -Most of these issues occur when using libreboot with coreboot\'s \'text -mode\' instead of the coreboot framebuffer. This mode is useful for +Most of these issues occur when using libreboot with coreboot's 'text +mode' instead of the coreboot framebuffer. This mode is useful for booting payloads like memtest86+ which expect text-mode, but for FreeBSD it can be problematic when they are trying to switch to a framebuffer -because it doesn\'t exist. +because it doesn't exist. In most cases, you should use the vesafb ROM images. Example filename: libreboot\_ukdvorak\_vesafb.rom. -won\'t boot\...something about file not found +won't boot\...something about file not found --------------------------------------------- Your device names (i.e. usb0, usb1, sd0, sd1, wd0, ahci0, hd0, etc) and diff --git a/docs/bsd/netbsd.md b/docs/bsd/netbsd.md @@ -4,7 +4,7 @@ How to install NetBSD on a libreboot system This section relates to preparing, booting and installing NetBSD on your libreboot system, using nothing more than a USB flash drive (and *dd*). -They\'ve only been tested on a librebooted ThinkPad X60. +They've only been tested on a librebooted ThinkPad X60. It is expected that you use text mode in libreboot (txtmode images), for the early boot process in NetBSD. **Suspend/hibernate is broken, @@ -62,7 +62,7 @@ Connect the USB drive. Check dmesg:\ Check to confirm which drive it is, for example, if you think its sd3:\ **\$ disklabel sd3** -Check that it wasn\'t automatically mounted. If it was, unmount it. For +Check that it wasn't automatically mounted. If it was, unmount it. For example:\ **\$ doas umount /dev/sd3i**\ @@ -86,7 +86,7 @@ Connect the USB drive. Check dmesg:\ Check lsblk to confirm which drive it is:\ **\$ lsblk** -Check that it wasn\'t automatically mounted. If it was, unmount it. For +Check that it wasn't automatically mounted. If it was, unmount it. For example:\ **\$ sudo umount /dev/sdX\***\ **\# umount /dev/sdX\*** @@ -145,22 +145,22 @@ NetBSD will start booting. Yay! Configuring Grub ---------------- -If you don\'t want to drop to the GRUB command line and type in a +If you don't want to drop to the GRUB command line and type in a command to boot NetBSD every time, you can create a GRUB configuration -that\'s aware of your NetBSD installation and that will automatically be +that's aware of your NetBSD installation and that will automatically be used by libreboot. On your NetBSD root partition, create the **/grub** directory and add the file **libreboot\_grub.cfg** to it. Inside the **libreboot\_grub.cfg** add these lines: -**default=0 timeout=3 menuentry \"NetBSD\" {\ +**default=0 timeout=3 menuentry "NetBSD" {\     knetbsd -r wd0a (ahci0,netbsd1)/netbsd\ }\ ** -The next time you boot, you\'ll see the old Grub menu for a few seconds, -then you\'ll see the a new menu with only NetBSD on the list. After 3 +The next time you boot, you'll see the old Grub menu for a few seconds, +then you'll see the a new menu with only NetBSD on the list. After 3 seconds NetBSD will boot, or you can hit enter to boot. [Back to top of page](#pagetop). @@ -170,16 +170,16 @@ seconds NetBSD will boot, or you can hit enter to boot. Troubleshooting =============== -Most of these issues occur when using libreboot with coreboot\'s \'text -mode\' instead of the coreboot framebuffer. This mode is useful for +Most of these issues occur when using libreboot with coreboot's 'text +mode' instead of the coreboot framebuffer. This mode is useful for booting payloads like memtest86+ which expect text-mode, but for NetBSD it can be problematic when they are trying to switch to a framebuffer -because it doesn\'t exist. +because it doesn't exist. In most cases, you should use the vesafb ROM images. Example filename: libreboot\_ukdvorak\_vesafb.rom. -won\'t boot\...something about file not found +won't boot\...something about file not found --------------------------------------------- Your device names (i.e. usb0, usb1, sd0, sd1, wd0, ahci0, hd0, etc) and diff --git a/docs/bsd/openbsd.md b/docs/bsd/openbsd.md @@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ LibertyBSD and prioritise that in this guide. This section relates to preparing, booting and installing OpenBSD on your libreboot system, using nothing more than a USB flash drive (and -*dd*). They\'ve only been tested on a Lenovo ThinkPad x200. +*dd*). They've only been tested on a Lenovo ThinkPad x200. - [Prepare the USB drive (in OpenBSD)](#prepare) - [Installing OpenBSD without full disk encryption](#noencryption) @@ -44,7 +44,7 @@ Connect the USB drive. Check dmesg:\ Check to confirm which drive it is, for example, if you think its sd3:\ **\$ disklabel sd3** -Check that it wasn\'t automatically mounted. If it was, unmount it. For +Check that it wasn't automatically mounted. If it was, unmount it. For example:\ **\$ doas umount /dev/sd3i**\ @@ -85,7 +85,7 @@ Connect the USB drive. Check dmesg:\ Check lsblk to confirm which drive it is:\ **\$ lsblk** -Check that it wasn\'t automatically mounted. If it was, unmount it. For +Check that it wasn't automatically mounted. If it was, unmount it. For example:\ **\$ sudo umount /dev/sdX\***\ **\# umount /dev/sdX\*** @@ -141,7 +141,7 @@ to boot a truly fully encrypted OpenBSD or LibertyBSD installation, by putting everything in the flash chip.** Alternatively, modifying GRUB to support booting fully encrypted OpenBSD -installations would be possible, but probably not feasible; it\'s an +installations would be possible, but probably not feasible; it's an alien codebase to the OpenBSD project, not tightly integrated and the OpenBSD bootloader already works. @@ -166,22 +166,22 @@ OpenBSD will start booting. Yay! Configuring Grub ---------------- -If you don\'t want to drop to the GRUB command line and type in a +If you don't want to drop to the GRUB command line and type in a command to boot OpenBSD every time, you can create a GRUB configuration -that\'s aware of your OpenBSD installation and that will automatically +that's aware of your OpenBSD installation and that will automatically be used by libreboot. On your OpenBSD root partition, create the **/grub** directory and add the file **libreboot\_grub.cfg** to it. Inside the **libreboot\_grub.cfg** add these lines: -**default=0 timeout=3 menuentry \"OpenBSD\" {\ +**default=0 timeout=3 menuentry "OpenBSD" {\     kopenbsd -r sd0a (ahci0,openbsd1)/bsd\ }\ ** -The next time you boot, you\'ll see the old Grub menu for a few seconds, -then you\'ll see the a new menu with only OpenBSD on the list. After 3 +The next time you boot, you'll see the old Grub menu for a few seconds, +then you'll see the a new menu with only OpenBSD on the list. After 3 seconds OpenBSD will boot, or you can hit enter to boot. [Back to top of page](#pagetop). @@ -191,16 +191,16 @@ seconds OpenBSD will boot, or you can hit enter to boot. Troubleshooting =============== -Most of these issues occur when using libreboot with coreboot\'s \'text -mode\' instead of the coreboot framebuffer. This mode is useful for +Most of these issues occur when using libreboot with coreboot's 'text +mode' instead of the coreboot framebuffer. This mode is useful for booting payloads like memtest86+ which expect text-mode, but for OpenBSD it can be problematic when they are trying to switch to a framebuffer -because it doesn\'t exist. +because it doesn't exist. In most cases, you should use the vesafb ROM images. Example filename: libreboot\_ukdvorak\_vesafb.rom. -won\'t boot\...something about file not found +won't boot\...something about file not found --------------------------------------------- Your device names (i.e. usb0, usb1, sd0, sd1, wd0, ahci0, hd0, etc) and diff --git a/docs/depthcharge/index.md b/docs/depthcharge/index.md @@ -30,7 +30,7 @@ most of which is executed within depthcharge. A detailed overview of the CrOS security model is available on the dedicated page. -In spite of the CrOS security model, depthcharge won\'t allow booting +In spite of the CrOS security model, depthcharge won't allow booting kernels without verifying their signature and booting from external media or legacy payload unless explicitly allowed: see [configuring verified boot parameters](#configuring_verified_boot_parameters). @@ -138,7 +138,7 @@ that hold a kernel signed with the recovery key. Google provides images of such recovery media for Chrome OS (which are not advised to users as they contain proprietary software).\ -They are signed with Google\'s recovery keys, that are pre-installed on +They are signed with Google's recovery keys, that are pre-installed on the device when it ships. When replacing the full flash of the device, the pre-installed keys are @@ -162,7 +162,7 @@ screen. Configuring verified boot parameters {#configuring_verified_boot_parameters} ==================================== -Depthcharge\'s behavior relies on the verified boot (vboot) reference +Depthcharge's behavior relies on the verified boot (vboot) reference implementation, that can be configured with parameters stored in the verified boot non-volatile storage.\ These parameters can be modified with the **crossystem** tool, that diff --git a/docs/distros/index.md b/docs/distros/index.md @@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ the ones that we recommend do not have proprietary software by default. Note: we are not the Free Software Foundation. The recommendations here consist of both FSF-endorsed and non-FSF-endorsed distros. Some of these distributions wrongly call the whole system *Linux*. Despite -libreboot\'s [stance against the GNU project](../../gnu/), we still +libreboot's [stance against the GNU project](../../gnu/), we still agree with the free software philosophy and we still want you to call the whole system *GNU+Linux*, since this is the technically correct name for the system. @@ -21,7 +21,7 @@ FSF-endorsed distros Many FSF-endorsed GNU+Linux distributions are considered unfit for general use by the libreboot project. You can read about their problems here:\ -[Why we can\'t endorse many FSF-endorsed +[Why we can't endorse many FSF-endorsed distributions](../fsf-distros/). [How to install GNU+Linux on a libreboot @@ -39,7 +39,7 @@ to do development, e.g. libreboot development, then you should use the testing release of Debian. Debian by default comes without non-free software in the default -installation or repos. There is a non-free repo that\'s not added by +installation or repos. There is a non-free repo that's not added by default. Just avoid adding this, and you should have a fully free system. diff --git a/docs/fsf-distros/index.md b/docs/fsf-distros/index.md @@ -1,8 +1,8 @@ -Explaining Why We Don\'t Endorse FSF-endorsed Systems +Explaining Why We Don't Endorse FSF-endorsed Systems ===================================================== -We are asked why we don\'t endorse most FSF-endorsed distributions, +We are asked why we don't endorse most FSF-endorsed distributions, usually well-known within the FSF community. To learn more about the GNU+Linux systems that we do endorse, check out @@ -15,29 +15,29 @@ FSF-endorsed distribution that we endorse there is *Parabola*. Blag ---- -It\'s a dead project. +It's a dead project. Dynebolic --------- -It\'s a dead project. +It's a dead project. gNewSense --------- -It\'s a dead project. +It's a dead project. GuixSD ------ -It\'s the GNU project\'s official distribution. [Libreboot is opposed to -the GNU project](../../gnu/). It\'s actively developed, but it\'s not +It's the GNU project's official distribution. [Libreboot is opposed to +the GNU project](../../gnu/). It's actively developed, but it's not yet ready for use by most end users. Musix ----- -It\'s a dead project. +It's a dead project. Trisquel -------- @@ -69,7 +69,7 @@ recommendations](../distros/). Ututo ----- -It\'s a dead project. +It's a dead project. [Back to top of page](#pagetop) diff --git a/docs/future/index.md b/docs/future/index.md @@ -74,8 +74,8 @@ Apparently, only 8MB VRAM is available on i945 GPUs (though it could do 64MB):\ phcoder: No. Hardware default is 8 MiB. When I wanted to make it configurable, I saw that docs mention only one other alternative: 1MiB. -Later isn\'t event enough for 1024x768 at 24bpp without any acceleration -or double buffering. It\'s possible that there are undocumented values. +Later isn't event enough for 1024x768 at 24bpp without any acceleration +or double buffering. It's possible that there are undocumented values. Which options do you have in vendor BIOS? How to find out how much vram you have:\ phcoder: TOM - BSM\ @@ -85,9 +85,9 @@ phcoder: not accorging to doc.\ phcoder: see mobile-945-express-chipset-datasheet page 93\ phcoder: see also src/northbridge/intel/i945/{early\_init,northbridge,gma}.c\ -vimuser: \"011 = DVMT (UMA) mode, 8 MB of memory pre-allocated for\ -vimuser: frame buffer.\"\ -vimuser: \"Others - reserved\"\ +vimuser: "011 = DVMT (UMA) mode, 8 MB of memory pre-allocated for\ +vimuser: frame buffer."\ +vimuser: "Others - reserved"\ phcoder: the easiest way is a loop at this position which tries different values and reads (and prints) BSM with them\ stefanct: vimuser: they suggest that you change the value and look how @@ -147,7 +147,7 @@ Original getregs.py script can be found at Masłowski. About fixing remaining LCD panels on 5345:\ -\'polarity\' is mentioned in coreboot log (cbmem -c). compare output +'polarity' is mentioned in coreboot log (cbmem -c). compare output (with working and non-working panel). (and see the other notes in docs/future/) @@ -240,7 +240,7 @@ i945 gfx: X60/T60 VBT implementation (experimental: testing) {#i945_vbt} intel\_bios\_dumper in intel-gpu-tools seems interesting. -**Use \'drm.debug=0x06\' kernel parameter when booting in grub!** +**Use 'drm.debug=0x06' kernel parameter when booting in grub!** Before each test run, boot a live USB and delete the old logs in /var/log (kernel log, xorg log, dmesg and so on). @@ -272,28 +272,28 @@ Results (\# means untested): - BOE-Hydis HV121X03-100: \# - **X60T SXGA+:** - BOE-Hydis HV121P01-100: \# -- **T60 14\" XGA:** +- **T60 14" XGA:** - Samsung LTN141XA-L01: \# - CMO N141XC: \# - BOE-Hydis HT14X14: \# - TMD-Toshiba LTD141ECMB: \# -- **T60 14\" SXGA+** +- **T60 14" SXGA+** - TMD-Toshiba LTD141EN9B: \# - Samsung LTN141P4-L02: \# - Boe-Hydis HT14P12: \# -- **T60 15\" XGA** +- **T60 15" XGA** - Samsung LTN150XG-L08: \# - LG-Philips LP150X09: \# - 13N7068 (IDtech): \# - 13N7069 (CMO): \# -- **T60 15\" SXGA+** +- **T60 15" SXGA+** - LG-Philips LP150E05-A2K1: \# - BOE-Hydis HV150P01-100: \# -- **T60 15\" UXGA** +- **T60 15" UXGA** - BOE-Hydis HV150UX1-100: \# - IDTech N150U3-L01: \# - BOE-Hydis HV150UX1-102: \# -- **T50 15\" QXGA** +- **T50 15" QXGA** - IDtech IAQX10N: \# - IDtech IAQX10S: \# @@ -314,7 +314,7 @@ the X60, X60 Tablet and T60 (Intel GPU). Here is an example of how VBT was implemented on the ThinkPad X230: <http://review.coreboot.org/#/c/5396>. -You\'ll need to build a T60 ROM with SeaBIOS and the VGA ROM (for Intel +You'll need to build a T60 ROM with SeaBIOS and the VGA ROM (for Intel GPU). An X60 ROM is also needed (same configuration, using the VGA ROM for X60). @@ -346,28 +346,28 @@ Test results (\# means untested and all had docks, unless noted). - BOE-Hydis HV121X03-100: \# - **X60T SXGA+ (1400x1050):** - BOE-Hydis HV121P01-100: \# -- **T60 14\" XGA (1024x768):** +- **T60 14" XGA (1024x768):** - Samsung LTN141XA-L01: \# - CMO N141XC: \# - BOE-Hydis HT14X14: \# - TMD-Toshiba LTD141ECMB: \# -- **T60 14\" SXGA+ (1400x1050):** +- **T60 14" SXGA+ (1400x1050):** - TMD-Toshiba LTD141EN9B: \# - Samsung LTN141P4-L02: \# - Boe-Hydis HT14P12: \# -- **T60 15\" XGA (1024x768):** +- **T60 15" XGA (1024x768):** - Samsung LTN150XG-L08: \# - LG-Philips LP150X09: \# - 13N7068 (IDtech): \# - 13N7069 (CMO): \# -- **T60 15\" SXGA+ (1400x1050):** +- **T60 15" SXGA+ (1400x1050):** - LG-Philips LP150E05-A2K1: \# - BOE-Hydis HV150P01-100: \# -- **T60 15\" UXGA (1600x1200):** +- **T60 15" UXGA (1600x1200):** - BOE-Hydis HV150UX1-100: \# - IDTech N150U3-L01: \# - BOE-Hydis HV150UX1-102: \# -- **T60 15\" QXGA (2048x1536):** +- **T60 15" QXGA (2048x1536):** - IDtech IAQX10N: \# - IDtech IAQX10S: \# @@ -378,7 +378,7 @@ Test results (\# means untested and all had docks, unless noted). Fallback patches {#fallback_patches} ================ -- Todo: test gnutoo\'s fallback patches: +- Todo: test gnutoo's fallback patches: <http://www.coreboot.org/Fallback_mechanism> see [this IRC log](gnutoo_fallback_patch) (warning, not cleaned up) @@ -393,11 +393,11 @@ Other - unlisted (low priority) {#other} <http://review.coreboot.org/#/c/6718/> - [dmesg](future/dumps/pte_x60_6718/dmesg) - [kern.log](future/dumps/pte_x60_6718/kern.log) - - This doesn\'t seem to cause any issues for general use. + - This doesn't seem to cause any issues for general use. - Implement INT 10H support in i945 native graphics. (this will be a lot of work. SeaBIOS has code for some geode boards, to get a general idea). -- T60 15\" QXGA (2048x1536): fixed issue where GRUB wouldn\'t show any +- T60 15" QXGA (2048x1536): fixed issue where GRUB wouldn't show any graphics. (Not many people have this panel) - It might be the same issue I ran into with Paul on the X60 (not enough memory being allocated) since the same code works on T60 diff --git a/docs/future/old.md b/docs/future/old.md @@ -41,7 +41,7 @@ Tablet (1024x768) and X60 Tablet (1400x1050) **Add backlight controls:** in *src/mainboard/lenovo/x60/devicetree.cb*, change **gpu\_backlight** to **0x879F879E** -That\'s all! **This has also been backported into libreboot 5th release +That's all! **This has also been backported into libreboot 5th release (line 1233 in src/mainboard/lenovo/x60/i915io.c)**. GNUtoo (Denis Carikli) told me about the register **BLC\_PWM\_CTL** and that you could set it to control backlight. I read that address using devmem2 while @@ -58,15 +58,15 @@ Further notes ------------- Reading **0xe4361254** (address) in Lenovo BIOS always yields FFFFFFFF, -even when writing to it (and writing to it doesn\'t affect brightness -controls). \'mtjm\' on IRC found that the buttons (Fn keys) control +even when writing to it (and writing to it doesn't affect brightness +controls). 'mtjm' on IRC found that the buttons (Fn keys) control /sys/class/backlight/acpi\_video0 which has no affect on 61254 (BLC\_PWM\_CTL). This person says intel\_backlight has different values and uses the register. devmem2 works, needs checking **lspci -vv** for where the memory is mapped, which is different than on coreboot; mtjm found that it was 0xec061254 on his system (X60 Tablet), and the register value is different too. **This is relevant, because we still -don\'t know how backlight controls are actually handled. We got it +don't know how backlight controls are actually handled. We got it working by accident. We need to know more.**. Intel-gpu-tools may prove useful for further debugging: @@ -88,14 +88,14 @@ works**. mtjm goes on to say, that the register specifies the frequency used for PWM in its depending on the GPU core frequency, so it might be possible to calculate it without hardcoded laptop-specific values. Therefore, I -am supposed to find out the \'display core frequency\' (mtjm says there +am supposed to find out the 'display core frequency' (mtjm says there might be a register for it; also, it might be in 5320 or the replay code) and the PWM modulation frequency. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Backlight\#Flicker\_due\_to\_backlight\_dimming phcoder (Vladimir Serbinenko) who is author of 5320 -(review.coreboot.org) talks about \'duty cycle limit\' and \'flickering -frequency\'. +(review.coreboot.org) talks about 'duty cycle limit' and 'flickering +frequency'. [Back to top of page](#pagetop) @@ -163,7 +163,7 @@ The correct way to do it is to set gtt address to (end of stolen memory - gtt size), which is what later versions of 5927 do (successfully). Here is some debugging output using intel\_gpu\_tools v1.2-1 (from -apt-get repositories) using tool \"intel\_gtt\": +apt-get repositories) using tool "intel\_gtt": - kernel 3.14.4: - with libreboot 5th release (using the 7c0000 gtt hack from @@ -184,12 +184,12 @@ i945/X60: Coreboot 5927 testing (3D fix for kernel 3.12+ on replay code) {#x60_c <http://review.coreboot.org/#/c/5927/>** **The latest version as-is (5927/11) has not been tested by me yet. -Always boot with \'drm.debug=0x06\' kernel parameter when testing +Always boot with 'drm.debug=0x06' kernel parameter when testing this.** This is the fix for 3D on kernel 3.12 and higher on i945 (ThinkPad X60 in this case). This is for the replay code. Libreboot 5th release has a -version of this backported already (based on 5927/3 using the \'7c0000\' +version of this backported already (based on 5927/3 using the '7c0000' hack). **The replay code is obsolete (see 5320 changeset on review.coreboot.org @@ -217,10 +217,10 @@ GTT (graphics translation table) size is PGETBL\_save, max 256 KiB. BSM - 5927/5: [5927\_5.tar.gz](dumps/5927_5.tar.gz) (GRUB graphics corrupt, 3D/everything still works after GRUB) - 5927/3: [5927\_3.tar.gz](dumps/5927_3.tar.gz) (3D still works! - kernel 3.14.4) - the \'7c0000\' hack + kernel 3.14.4) - the '7c0000' hack - 5927/2: [5927\_2.tar.gz](dumps/5927_2.tar.gz) (3D works! kernel - 3.14.4) - the \'7c0000\' hack -- 5927/1 (didn\'t fix the 3D issue): + 3.14.4) - the '7c0000' hack +- 5927/1 (didn't fix the 3D issue): - [cbmem -c](dumps/5927_cbmemc) - [/sys/class/drm/card0/error](dumps/5927_crashdump) - [.config](dumps/5927_config) diff --git a/docs/git/index.md b/docs/git/index.md @@ -14,9 +14,9 @@ the git repository. - [Install build dependencies](#build_dependencies) - [Get the full source code from metadata (git clone)](#build_meta) -- [How to build \"bucts\" (for LenovoBIOS +- [How to build "bucts" (for LenovoBIOS X60/X60S/X60T/T60)](#build_bucts) -- [How to build \"flashrom\"](#build_flashrom) +- [How to build "flashrom"](#build_flashrom) - [How to build the ROM images](#build) @@ -54,7 +54,7 @@ Get the full source code from metadata (git clone) {#build_meta} If you downloaded libreboot from git, then there are some steps to download and patch the source code for all relevant dependencies. The archive in the git repository used to be available as a tarball called -\'libreboot\_meta.tar.gz\'. It contains \'metadata\' (scripts) which +'libreboot\_meta.tar.gz'. It contains 'metadata' (scripts) which define how the source was created (where it came from). You can use the scripts included to download everything. @@ -64,7 +64,7 @@ First, [install the build dependencies](#build_dependencies). Since libreboot makes extensive use of git, you need to configure git properly. If you have not yet configured git, then the minimum requirement is:\ -\$ **git config \--global user.name \"Your Name\"**\ +\$ **git config \--global user.name "Your Name"**\ \$ **git config \--global user.email your@emailaddress.com**\ This is what will also appear in git logs if you ever commit your own changes to a given repository. For more information, see @@ -90,13 +90,13 @@ To build the ROM images, see [\#build](#build). -How to build \"bucts\" (for LenovoBIOS X60/X60S/X60T/T60) {#build_bucts} +How to build "bucts" (for LenovoBIOS X60/X60S/X60T/T60) {#build_bucts} ========================================================= **This is for Lenovo BIOS users on the ThinkPad X60/X60S, X60 Tablet and T60. If you have coreboot or libreboot running already, ignore this.** -BUC.TS isn\'t really specific to these laptops, but is a bit inside the +BUC.TS isn't really specific to these laptops, but is a bit inside the a register in the chipset on some Intel systems. Bucts is needed when flashing in software the X60/X60S/X60T/T60 ROM @@ -104,16 +104,16 @@ while Lenovo BIOS is running; external flashing will be safe regardless. Each ROM contains identical data inside the two final 64K region in the file\*. This corresponds to the final two 64K regions in the flash chip. Lenovo BIOS will prevent you from writing the final one, so running -\"**bucts 1**\" will set the system to boot from the other block instead +"**bucts 1**" will set the system to boot from the other block instead (which is writeable along with everything beneath it when using a patched flashrom. see [\#build\_flashrom](#build_flashrom)). After shutting down and booting up after the first flash of libreboot, the final 64K block is writeable so you flash the ROM again with an -unpatched flashrom and run \"**bucts 0**\" to make the system boot from +unpatched flashrom and run "**bucts 0**" to make the system boot from the normal (highest) block again. \*Libreboot ROM images have identical data in those two 64KiB regions -because dd is used to do that, by the build system. If you\'re building +because dd is used to do that, by the build system. If you're building from upstream (coreboot), you have to do it manually. BUC.TS is backed up (powered) by the NVRAM battery (or CMOS battery, as @@ -127,11 +127,11 @@ libreboot\_util.tar.xz.\ **If you downloaded from git, follow [\#build\_meta](#build_meta) before you proceed.** -\"BUC\" means \"**B**ack**u**p **C**ontrol\" (it\'s a register) and -\"TS\" means \"**T**op **S**wap\" (it\'s a status bit). Hence \"bucts\" +"BUC" means "**B**ack**u**p **C**ontrol" (it's a register) and +"TS" means "**T**op **S**wap" (it's a status bit). Hence "bucts" (BUC.TS). TS 1 and TS 0 corresponds to bucts 1 and bucts 0. -If you have the binary release archive, you\'ll find executables under +If you have the binary release archive, you'll find executables under ./bucts/. Otherwise if you need to build from source, continue reading. First, [install the build dependencies](#build_dependencies). @@ -142,14 +142,14 @@ To build bucts, do this in the main directory:\ To statically compile it, do this:\ \$ **./oldbuild module bucts static** -The \"builddeps\" script in libreboot\_src also makes use of +The "builddeps" script in libreboot\_src also makes use of builddeps-bucts. [Back to top of page.](#pagetop) -How to build \"flashrom\" {#build_flashrom} +How to build "flashrom" {#build_flashrom} ========================= Flashrom is the utility for flashing/dumping ROM images. This is what @@ -173,7 +173,7 @@ To build it, do the following in the main directory:\ To statically compile it, do the following in the main directory:\ \$ **./oldbuild module flashrom static** -After you\'ve done that, under ./flashrom/ you will find the following +After you've done that, under ./flashrom/ you will find the following executables: - **flashrom** @@ -185,7 +185,7 @@ executables: - This is patched for flashing while Lenovo BIOS is running on an X60 or T60 with the MX25L1605D (Macronix) flash chip. -The \"builddeps\" script in libreboot\_src also makes use of +The "builddeps" script in libreboot\_src also makes use of builddeps-flashrom. [Back to top of page.](#pagetop) @@ -195,7 +195,7 @@ builddeps-flashrom. How to build the ROM images {#build} =========================== -You don\'t need to do much, as there are scripts already written for you +You don't need to do much, as there are scripts already written for you that can build everything automatically. You can build libreboot from source on a 32-bit (i686) or 64-bit @@ -321,7 +321,7 @@ The archive **tobuild.tar.xz** will have been created under **release/oldbuildsystem/**, containing bucts, flashrom and all other required resources for building them. -You\'ll find that the files libreboot\_util.tar.xz and +You'll find that the files libreboot\_util.tar.xz and libreboot\_src.tar.xz have been created, under **release/oldbuildsystem/**. diff --git a/docs/gnulinux/configuring_parabola.md b/docs/gnulinux/configuring_parabola.md @@ -4,7 +4,7 @@ Configuring Parabola (post-install) Post-installation configuration steps for Parabola GNU+Linux-libre. Parabola is extremely flexible; this is just an example. This example -uses LXDE because it\'s lightweight, but we recommend the *MATE* desktop +uses LXDE because it's lightweight, but we recommend the *MATE* desktop (which is actually about as lightweight as LXDE). [Back to previous index](./) @@ -52,7 +52,7 @@ It details configuration steps that I took after installing the base system, as a follow up to [encrypted\_parabola.html](encrypted_parabola.html). This guide is likely to become obsolete at a later date (due to the volatile -\'rolling-release\' model that Arch/Parabola both use), but attempts +'rolling-release' model that Arch/Parabola both use), but attempts will be made to maintain it. **This guide was valid on 2014-09-21. If you see any changes that should @@ -95,12 +95,12 @@ careful about this when reading anything on the Arch wiki. -Some of these steps require internet access. I\'ll go into networking +Some of these steps require internet access. I'll go into networking later but for now, I just connected my system to a switch and did:\ \# **systemctl start dhcpcd.service**\ You can stop it later by running:\ \# **systemctl stop dhcpcd.service**\ -For most people this should be enough, but if you don\'t have DHCP on +For most people this should be enough, but if you don't have DHCP on your network then you should setup your network connection first:\ [Setup network connection in Parabola](#network) @@ -111,13 +111,13 @@ Configure pacman {#pacman_configure} pacman (**pac**kage **man**ager) is the name of the package management system in Arch, which Parabola (as a deblobbed parallel effort) also -uses. Like with \'apt-get\' on Debian or Devuan, this can be used to +uses. Like with 'apt-get' on Debian or Devuan, this can be used to add/remove and update the software on your computer. Based on <https://wiki.parabolagnulinux.org/Installation_Guide#Configure_pacman> and from reading <https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Pacman> (make -sure to read and understand this, it\'s very important) and +sure to read and understand this, it's very important) and <https://wiki.parabolagnulinux.org/Official_Repositories> [Back to top of page.](#pagetop) @@ -127,7 +127,7 @@ sure to read and understand this, it\'s very important) and Updating Parabola {#pacman_update} ----------------- -In the end, I didn\'t change my configuration for pacman. When you are +In the end, I didn't change my configuration for pacman. When you are updating, resync with the latest package names/versions:\ \# **pacman -Syy**\ (according to the wiki, -Syy is better than Sy because it refreshes the @@ -136,7 +136,7 @@ when switching to another mirror).\ Then, update the system:\ \# **pacman -Syu** -**Before installing packages with \'pacman -S\', always update first, +**Before installing packages with 'pacman -S', always update first, using the notes above.** Keep an eye out on the output, or read it in /var/log/pacman.log. @@ -145,12 +145,12 @@ will need to perform with certain files (typically configurations) after the update. Also, you should check both the Parabola and Arch home pages to see if they mention any issues. If a new kernel is installed, you should also update to be able to use it (the currently running kernel -will also be fine). It\'s generally good enough to update Parabola once -every week, or maybe twice. As a rolling release distribution, it\'s a +will also be fine). It's generally good enough to update Parabola once +every week, or maybe twice. As a rolling release distribution, it's a good idea never to leave your install too outdated; update regularly. This is simply because of the way the project works; old packages are deleted from the repositories quickly, once they are updated. A system -that hasn\'t been updated for quite a while will mean potentially more +that hasn't been updated for quite a while will mean potentially more reading of previous posts through the website, and more maintenance work. @@ -166,7 +166,7 @@ sending an email to an important person before an allocated deadline, and so on. Relax - packages are well-tested regularly when new updates are made to -the repositories. Separate \'testing\' repositories exist for this exact +the repositories. Separate 'testing' repositories exist for this exact reason. Despite what many people will tell you, Parabola is fairly stable and trouble-free, so long as you are aware of how to check for issues, and are willing to spend some time fixing issues in the rare @@ -194,7 +194,7 @@ re-install it or install the distro on another computer, for example). maintain your Parabola system:\ <https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Pacman#Cleaning_the_package_cache>. Essentially, this guide talks about a directory that has to be cleaned -once in a while, to prevent it from growing too big (it\'s a cache of +once in a while, to prevent it from growing too big (it's a cache of old package information, updated automatically when you do anything in pacman).** @@ -203,8 +203,8 @@ To clean out all old packages that are cached:\ The wiki cautions that this should be used with care. For example, since older packages are deleted from the repo, if you encounter issues and -want to revert back to an older package then it\'s useful to have the -caches available. Only do this if you are sure that you won\'t need it. +want to revert back to an older package then it's useful to have the +caches available. Only do this if you are sure that you won't need it. The wiki also mentions this method for removing everything from the cache, including currently installed packages that are cached:\ @@ -247,7 +247,7 @@ Add a user {#useradd} Based on <https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Users_and_Groups>. It is important (for security reasons) to create and use a non-root -(non-admin) user account for everyday use. The default \'root\' account +(non-admin) user account for everyday use. The default 'root' account is intended only for critical administrative work, since it has complete access to the entire operating system. @@ -275,20 +275,20 @@ It is a good idea to become familiar with it. Read gain a full understanding. **This is very important! Make sure to read them.** -An example of a \'service\' could be a webserver (such as lighttpd), or +An example of a 'service' could be a webserver (such as lighttpd), or sshd (openssh), dhcp, etc. There are countless others. <https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=1149530#p1149530> explains -the background behind the decision by Arch (Parabola\'s upstream +the background behind the decision by Arch (Parabola's upstream supplier) to use systemd. The manpage should also help:\ \# **man systemd**\ -The section on \'unit types\' is especially useful. +The section on 'unit types' is especially useful. -According to the wiki, systemd \'journal\' keeps logs of a size up to +According to the wiki, systemd 'journal' keeps logs of a size up to 10% of the total size your / partition takes up. on a 60GB root this -would mean 6GB. That\'s not exactly practical, and can have performance +would mean 6GB. That's not exactly practical, and can have performance implications later when the log gets too big. Based on instructions from the wiki, I will reduce the total size of the journal to 50MiB (the wiki recommends 50MiB). @@ -307,20 +307,20 @@ Restart journald:\ The wiki recommends that if the journal gets too large, you can also simply delete (rm -Rf) everything inside /var/log/journald/\* but -recommends backing it up. This shouldn\'t be necessary, since you +recommends backing it up. This shouldn't be necessary, since you already set the size limit above and systemd will automatically start to -delete older records when the journal size reaches it\'s limit +delete older records when the journal size reaches it's limit (according to systemd developers). -Finally, the wiki mentions \'temporary\' files and the utility for +Finally, the wiki mentions 'temporary' files and the utility for managing them.\ \# **man systemd-tmpfiles**\ -The command for \'clean\' is:\ +The command for 'clean' is:\ \# **systemd-tmpfiles \--clean**\ -According to the manpage, this *\"cleans all files and directories with -an age parameter\"*. According to the Arch wiki, this reads information +According to the manpage, this *"cleans all files and directories with +an age parameter"*. According to the Arch wiki, this reads information in /etc/tmpfiles.d/ and /usr/lib/tmpfiles.d/ to know what actions to -perform. Therefore, it is a good idea to read what\'s stored in these +perform. Therefore, it is a good idea to read what's stored in these locations to get a better understanding. I looked in /etc/tmpfiles.d/ and found that it was empty on my system. @@ -329,7 +329,7 @@ etc.conf, containing information and a reference to this manpage:\ \# **man tmpfiles.d**\ Read that manpage, and then continue studying all the files. -The systemd developers tell me that it isn\'t usually necessary to touch +The systemd developers tell me that it isn't usually necessary to touch the systemd-tmpfiles utility manually at all. [Back to top of page](#pagetop) @@ -341,12 +341,12 @@ Interesting repositories {#interesting_repos} Parabola wiki at <https://wiki.parabolagnulinux.org/Repositories#kernels> mentions about -a repository called \[kernels\] for custom kernels that aren\'t in the +a repository called \[kernels\] for custom kernels that aren't in the default base. It might be worth looking into what is available there, depending on your use case. I enabled it on my system, to see what was in it. Edit /etc/pacman.conf -and below the \'extra\' section add:\ +and below the 'extra' section add:\ *\[kernels\]\ Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist* @@ -386,8 +386,8 @@ Add the same hostname to /etc/hosts, on each line. Example:\ *127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost myhostname\ ::1 localhost.localdomain localhost myhostname* -You\'ll note that I set both lines; the 2nd line is for IPv6. More and -more ISPs are providing this now (mine does) so it\'s good to be +You'll note that I set both lines; the 2nd line is for IPv6. More and +more ISPs are providing this now (mine does) so it's good to be forward-thinking here. The *hostname* utility is part of the *inetutils* package and is in @@ -400,12 +400,12 @@ core/, installed by default (as part of *base*). According to the Arch wiki, [udev](https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Udev) should already detect the ethernet chipset and load the driver for it automatically at boot -time. You can check this in the *\"Ethernet controller\"* section when +time. You can check this in the *"Ethernet controller"* section when running this command:\ \# **lspci -v** -Look at the remaining sections *\'Kernel driver in use\'* and *\'Kernel -modules\'*. In my case it was as follows:\ +Look at the remaining sections *'Kernel driver in use'* and *'Kernel +modules'*. In my case it was as follows:\ *Kernel driver in use: e1000e\ Kernel modules: e1000e* @@ -463,8 +463,8 @@ continuing. Also read is important, so make sure to read them!** Install smartmontools (it can be used to check smart data. HDDs use -non-free firmware inside, but it\'s transparent to you but the smart -data comes from it. Therefore, don\'t rely on it too much):\ +non-free firmware inside, but it's transparent to you but the smart +data comes from it. Therefore, don't rely on it too much):\ \# **pacman -S smartmontools**\ Read <https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/S.M.A.R.T.> to learn how to use it. @@ -502,7 +502,7 @@ For other systems you can try:\ \# **pacman -Ss xf86-video- | less**\ Combined with looking at your *lspci* output, you can determine which driver is needed. By default, Xorg will revert to xf86-video-vesa which -is a generic driver and doesn\'t provide true hardware acceleration. +is a generic driver and doesn't provide true hardware acceleration. Other drivers (not just video) can be found by looking at the *xorg-drivers* group:\ @@ -541,9 +541,9 @@ X:\ \# **setxkbmap -print -verbose 10** In my case, I wanted to use the Dvorak (UK) keyboard which is quite -different from Xorg\'s default Qwerty (US) layout. +different from Xorg's default Qwerty (US) layout. -I\'ll just say it now: *XkbModel* can be *pc105* in this case (ThinkPad +I'll just say it now: *XkbModel* can be *pc105* in this case (ThinkPad X60, with a 105-key UK keyboard). If you use an American keyboard (typically 104 keys) you will want to use *pc104*. @@ -559,16 +559,16 @@ and\ In my case, I chose to use the *configuration file* method:\ Create the file /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/10-keyboard.conf and put this inside:\ -*Section \"InputClass\"\ -        Identifier \"system-keyboard\"\ -        MatchIsKeyboard \"on\"\ -        Option \"XkbLayout\" \"gb\"\ -        Option \"XkbModel\" \"pc105\"\ -        Option \"XkbVariant\" \"dvorak\"\ +*Section "InputClass"\ +        Identifier "system-keyboard"\ +        MatchIsKeyboard "on"\ +        Option "XkbLayout" "gb"\ +        Option "XkbModel" "pc105"\ +        Option "XkbVariant" "dvorak"\ EndSection* For you, the steps above may differ if you have a different layout. If -you use a US Qwerty keyboard, then you don\'t even need to do anything +you use a US Qwerty keyboard, then you don't even need to do anything (though it might help, for the sake of being explicit). [Back to top of page.](#pagetop) @@ -577,17 +577,17 @@ you use a US Qwerty keyboard, then you don\'t even need to do anything ### Install LXDE {#desktop_lxde} -Desktop choice isn\'t that important to me, so for simplicity I decided -to use LXDE. It\'s lightweight and does everything that I need. If you +Desktop choice isn't that important to me, so for simplicity I decided +to use LXDE. It's lightweight and does everything that I need. If you would like to try something different, refer to <https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Desktop_environment> Refer to <https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/LXDE>. -Install it, choosing \'all\' when asked for the default package list:\ +Install it, choosing 'all' when asked for the default package list:\ \# **pacman -S lxde obconf** -I didn\'t want the following, so I removed them:\ +I didn't want the following, so I removed them:\ \# **pacman -R lxmusic lxtask** I also lazily installed all fonts:\ @@ -689,7 +689,7 @@ Right click lxde panel and *Add/Remove Panel Items*. Click *Add* and select *Battery Monitor*, then click *Add*. Close and then right-click the applet and go to *Battery Monitor Settings*, check the box that says *Show Extended Information*. Now click *Close*. When you hover the -cursor over it, it\'ll show information about the battery. +cursor over it, it'll show information about the battery. [Back to top of page.](#pagetop) diff --git a/docs/gnulinux/encrypted_debian.md b/docs/gnulinux/encrypted_debian.md @@ -15,7 +15,7 @@ to traditional BIOS systems. On most systems, the /boot partition has to be left unencrypted while the others are encrypted. This is so that GRUB, and therefore the -kernel, can be loaded and executed since the firmware can\'t open a LUKS +kernel, can be loaded and executed since the firmware can't open a LUKS volume. Not so with libreboot! Since GRUB is already included directly as a payload, even /boot can be encrypted. This protects /boot from tampering by someone with physical access to the system. @@ -23,12 +23,12 @@ tampering by someone with physical access to the system. This guide is written for Debian net installer. You can download the ISO from the homepage on [debian.org](https://www.debian.org/). Use this on the GRUB terminal to boot it from USB (for 64-bit Intel or AMD):\ -**set root=\'usb0\'\ +**set root='usb0'\ linux /install.amd/vmlinuz\ initrd /install.amd/initrd.gz\ boot\ ** If you are on a 32-bit system (e.g. X60):\ -**set root=\'usb0\'\ +**set root='usb0'\ linux /install.386/vmlinuz\ initrd /install.386/initrd.gz\ boot** @@ -54,10 +54,10 @@ Use of the *diceware method* is recommended, for generating secure passphrases (instead of passwords). when the installer asks you to set up encryption (ecryptfs) for your -home directory, select \'Yes\' if you want to: **LUKS is already secure +home directory, select 'Yes' if you want to: **LUKS is already secure and performs well. Having ecryptfs on top of it will add noticeable performance penalty, for little security gain in most use cases. This is -therefore optional, and not recommended. Choose \'no\'.** +therefore optional, and not recommended. Choose 'no'.** **Your user password should be different from the LUKS password which you will set later on. Your LUKS password should, like the user @@ -68,7 +68,7 @@ password, be secure.** Partitioning ============ -Choose \'Manual\' partitioning: +Choose 'Manual' partitioning: - Select drive and create new partition table - Single large partition. The following are mostly defaults: @@ -77,9 +77,9 @@ Choose \'Manual\' partitioning: - key size: whatever default is given to you - IV algorithm: whatever default is given to you - Encryption key: passphrase - - erase data: Yes (only choose \'No\' if it\'s a new drive that - doesn\'t contain your private data) -- Select \'configure encrypted volumes\' + - erase data: Yes (only choose 'No' if it's a new drive that + doesn't contain your private data) +- Select 'configure encrypted volumes' - Create encrypted volumes - Select your partition - Finish @@ -89,7 +89,7 @@ Choose \'Manual\' partitioning: minute to make sure that the LUKS header is wiped out) - Select encrypted space: - use as: physical volume for LVM - - Choose \'done setting up the partition\' + - Choose 'done setting up the partition' - Configure the logical volume manager: - Keep settings: Yes - Create volume group: @@ -119,7 +119,7 @@ mountpoints and filesystems to use. - LVM LV swap - use as: swap area - done setting up partition -- Now you select \'Finished partitioning and write changes to disk\'. +- Now you select 'Finished partitioning and write changes to disk'. @@ -135,7 +135,7 @@ Tasksel ======= For Debian, use the *MATE* option, or one of the others if you want. The -libreboot project recommends MATE, unless you\'re saavy enough to choose +libreboot project recommends MATE, unless you're saavy enough to choose something else. If you want debian-testing, then you should only select barebones @@ -145,10 +145,10 @@ install to point to the new distro, and then run **apt-get update** and root. This is to avoid downloading large packages twice. NOTE: If you want the latest up to date version of the Linux kernel, -Debian\'s kernel is sometimes outdated, even in the testing distro. You +Debian's kernel is sometimes outdated, even in the testing distro. You might consider using [this repository](https://jxself.org/linux-libre/) instead, which contains the most up to date versions of the Linux -kernel. These kernels are also deblobbed, like Debian\'s kernels, so you +kernel. These kernels are also deblobbed, like Debian's kernels, so you can be sure that no binary blobs are present. @@ -156,16 +156,16 @@ can be sure that no binary blobs are present. Postfix configuration ===================== -If asked, choose *\"No Configuration\"* here (or maybe you want to -select something else. It\'s up to you.) +If asked, choose *"No Configuration"* here (or maybe you want to +select something else. It's up to you.) Install the GRUB boot loader to the master boot record ====================================================== -Choose \'Yes\'. It will fail, but don\'t worry. Then at the main menu, -choose \'Continue without a bootloader\'. You could also choose \'No\'. +Choose 'Yes'. It will fail, but don't worry. Then at the main menu, +choose 'Continue without a bootloader'. You could also choose 'No'. Choice is irrelevant here. *You do not need to install GRUB at all, since in libreboot you are @@ -176,7 +176,7 @@ using the GRUB payload (for libreboot) to boot your system directly.* Clock UTC ========= -Just say \'Yes\'. +Just say 'Yes'. @@ -188,7 +188,7 @@ payload, press C to get to the command line. Do that:\ grub&gt; **cryptomount -a**\ -grub&gt; **set root=\'lvm/matrix-rootvol\'**\ +grub&gt; **set root='lvm/matrix-rootvol'**\ grub&gt; **linux /vmlinuz root=/dev/mapper/matrix-rootvol cryptdevice=/dev/mapper/matrix-rootvol:root**\ grub&gt; **initrd /initrd.img**\ @@ -199,7 +199,7 @@ grub&gt; **boot** ecryptfs ======== -If you didn\'t encrypt your home directory, then you can safely ignore +If you didn't encrypt your home directory, then you can safely ignore this section. Immediately after logging in, do that:\ @@ -219,11 +219,11 @@ Now you need to set it up so that the system will automatically boot, without having to type a bunch of commands. Modify your grub.cfg (in the firmware) [using this -tutorial](grub_cbfs.html); just change the default menu entry \'Load -Operating System\' to say this inside: +tutorial](grub_cbfs.html); just change the default menu entry 'Load +Operating System' to say this inside: **cryptomount -a**\ -**set root=\'lvm/matrix-rootvol\'**\ +**set root='lvm/matrix-rootvol'**\ **linux /vmlinuz root=/dev/mapper/matrix-rootvol cryptdevice=/dev/mapper/matrix-rootvol:root**\ **initrd /initrd.img** diff --git a/docs/gnulinux/encrypted_parabola.md b/docs/gnulinux/encrypted_parabola.md @@ -5,14 +5,14 @@ Installing Parabola or Arch GNU+Linux with full disk encryption (including /boot Libreboot on x86 uses the GRUB [payload](http://www.coreboot.org/Payloads#GRUB_2) by default, which means that the GRUB configuration file (where your GRUB menu comes from) -is stored directly alongside libreboot and it\'s GRUB payload +is stored directly alongside libreboot and it's GRUB payload executable, inside the flash chip. In context, this means that installing distributions and managing them is handled slightly differently compared to traditional BIOS systems. On most systems, the /boot partition has to be left unencrypted while the others are encrypted. This is so that GRUB, and therefore the -kernel, can be loaded and executed since the firmware can\'t open a LUKS +kernel, can be loaded and executed since the firmware can't open a LUKS volume. Not so with libreboot! Since GRUB is already included directly as a payload, even /boot can be encrypted. This protects /boot from tampering by someone with physical access to the system. @@ -36,7 +36,7 @@ drive. -Boot Parabola\'s install environment. [How to boot a GNU+Linux +Boot Parabola's install environment. [How to boot a GNU+Linux installer](grub_boot_installer.html). For this guide I used the 2015 08 01 image to boot the live installer @@ -62,7 +62,7 @@ security issues if you do enable it. See [this page](https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Dm-crypt/Specialties#Discard.2FTRIM_support_for_solid_state_drives_.28SSD.29) for more info. -- make sure it\'s brand-new (or barely used). Or, otherwise, be sure +- make sure it's brand-new (or barely used). Or, otherwise, be sure that it never previously contained plaintext copies of your data. - make sure to read [this @@ -79,15 +79,15 @@ example if it was 2MiB:\ \# **dd if=/dev/urandom of=/dev/sda bs=2M; sync** If your drive was already LUKS encrypted (maybe you are re-installing -your distro) then it is already \'wiped\'. You should just wipe the LUKS +your distro) then it is already 'wiped'. You should just wipe the LUKS header. <https://www.lisenet.com/2013/luks-add-keys-backup-and-restore-volume-header/> showed me how to do this. It recommends doing the first 3MiB. Now, that -guide is recommending putting zero there. I\'m going to use urandom. Do +guide is recommending putting zero there. I'm going to use urandom. Do this:\ \# **head -c 3145728 /dev/urandom &gt; /dev/sda; sync**\ (Wiping the LUKS header is important, since it has hashed passphrases -and so on. It\'s \'secure\', but \'potentially\' a risk). +and so on. It's 'secure', but 'potentially' a risk). @@ -142,7 +142,7 @@ I am using MBR partitioning, so I use cfdisk:\ \# **cfdisk /dev/sda** I create a single large sda1 filling the whole drive, leaving it as the -default type \'Linux\' (83). +default type 'Linux' (83). Now I refer to <https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Dm-crypt/Drive_preparation#Partitioning>:\ @@ -198,7 +198,7 @@ Show that you just created it:\ Now I create the volume group, inside of which the logical volumes will be created:\ \# **vgcreate matrix /dev/mapper/lvm**\ -(volume group name is \'matrix\' - choose your own name, if you like) +(volume group name is 'matrix' - choose your own name, if you like) Show that you created it:\ \# **vgdisplay** @@ -214,7 +214,7 @@ the rest of the space, named root)\ You can also be flexible here, for example you can specify a /boot, a /, a /home, a /var, a /usr, etc. For example, if you will be running a web/mail server then you want /var in its own partition (so that if it -fills up with logs, it won\'t crash your system). For a home/laptop +fills up with logs, it won't crash your system). For a home/laptop system (typical use case), a root and a swap will do (really). Verify that the logical volumes were created, using the following @@ -267,13 +267,13 @@ In my case I did the steps in the next paragraph, and followed the steps in this paragraph again. &lt;troubleshooting&gt;\ -   The following is based on \'Verification of package signatures\' in +   The following is based on 'Verification of package signatures' in the Parabola install guide.\    Check there first to see if steps differ by now.\    Now you have to update the default Parabola keyring. This is used for signing and verifying packages:\    \# **pacman -Sy parabola-keyring**\ -   It says that if you get GPG errors, then it\'s probably an expired +   It says that if you get GPG errors, then it's probably an expired key and, therefore, you should do:\    \# **pacman-key \--populate parabola**\    \# **pacman-key \--refresh-keys**\ @@ -294,7 +294,7 @@ me from using it.\    I deleted the files that it mentioned and then it worked. Specifically, I had this error:\    *licenses: /usr/share/licenses/common/MPS exists in filesystem*\ -   I rm -Rf\'d the file and then pacman worked. I\'m told that the +   I rm -Rf'd the file and then pacman worked. I'm told that the following would have also made it work:\    \# **pacman -Sf licenses**\ &lt;/troubleshooting&gt;\ @@ -322,7 +322,7 @@ command again!) Chroot into new system:\ \# **arch-chroot /mnt /bin/bash** -It\'s a good idea to have this installed:\ +It's a good idea to have this installed:\ \# **pacman -S linux-libre-lts** It was also suggested that you should install this kernel (read up on @@ -330,7 +330,7 @@ what GRSEC is):\ \# **pacman -S linux-libre-grsec** This is another kernel that sits inside /boot, which you can use. LTS -means \'long-term support\'. These are so-called \'stable\' kernels that +means 'long-term support'. These are so-called 'stable' kernels that can be used as a fallback during updates, if a bad kernel causes issues for you. @@ -380,13 +380,13 @@ information about each hook.) Specifically, for this use case:\ \# **vi /etc/mkinitcpio.conf**\ Then modify the file like so: -- MODULES=\"i915\" +- MODULES="i915" - This forces the driver to load earlier, so that the console font - isn\'t wiped out after getting to login). Macbook21 users will also + isn't wiped out after getting to login). Macbook21 users will also need **hid-generic, hid and hid-apple to have a working keyboard when asked to enter the LUKS password.** -- HOOKS=\"base udev autodetect modconf block keyboard keymap - consolefont encrypt lvm2 filesystems fsck shutdown\" +- HOOKS="base udev autodetect modconf block keyboard keymap + consolefont encrypt lvm2 filesystems fsck shutdown" - Explanation: - keymap adds to initramfs the keymap that you specified in /etc/vconsole.conf @@ -412,7 +412,7 @@ Set the root password: At the time of writing, Parabola used SHA512 by default for its password hashing. I referred to <https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/SHA_password_hashes>.\ \# **vi /etc/pam.d/passwd**\ -Add rounds=65536 at the end of the uncommented \'password\' line.\ +Add rounds=65536 at the end of the uncommented 'password' line.\ \# **passwd root**\ Make sure to set a secure password! Also, it must never be the same as your LUKS password. @@ -444,7 +444,7 @@ failed login attempts. Configure sudo - not covered here. Will be covered post-installation in another tutorial, at a later date. If this is a single-user system, you -don\'t really need sudo. +don't really need sudo. @@ -458,7 +458,7 @@ unmount:\ \# **umount -R /mnt**\ \# **swapoff -a** -deactivate the lvm lv\'s:\ +deactivate the lvm lv's:\ \# **lvchange -an /dev/matrix/root**\ \# **lvchange -an /dev/matrix/swapvol**\ @@ -478,7 +478,7 @@ command line. The underlined parts are optional (using those 2 underlines will boot lts kernel instead of normal). grub&gt; **cryptomount -a**\ -grub&gt; **set root=\'lvm/matrix-root\'**\ +grub&gt; **set root='lvm/matrix-root'**\ grub&gt; **linux /boot/vmlinuz-linux-libre-lts root=/dev/matrix/root cryptdevice=/dev/sda1:root**\ grub&gt; **initrd /boot/initramfs-linux-libre-lts.img**\ @@ -514,7 +514,7 @@ Modify grub.cfg inside the ROM automatically with this configuration. [grub\_cbfs.html](grub_cbfs.html) shows you how. Follow that guide, using the configuration details below. If you go for option 2 (re-flash), promise to do this on grubtest.cfg -first! We can\'t emphasise this enough. This is to reduce the +first! We can't emphasise this enough. This is to reduce the possibility of bricking your device! I will go for the re-flash option here. Firstly, cd to the @@ -532,7 +532,7 @@ Extract grubtest.cfg:\ And modify:\ \$ **vi grubtest.cfg** -In grubtest.cfg, inside the \'Load Operating System\' menu entry, change +In grubtest.cfg, inside the 'Load Operating System' menu entry, change the contents to: cryptomount -a @@ -571,18 +571,18 @@ Ocassionally, coreboot changes the name of a given board. If flashrom complains about a board mismatch, but you are sure that you chose the correct ROM image, then run this alternative command:\ \# **./flash forceupdate libreboot.rom**\ -You should see \"Verifying flash\... VERIFIED.\" written at the end of +You should see "Verifying flash\... VERIFIED." written at the end of the flashrom output. With this new configuration, Parabola can boot automatically and you will have to enter a password at boot time, in GRUB, before being able -to use any of the menu entries or switch to the terminal. Let\'s test it +to use any of the menu entries or switch to the terminal. Let's test it out: reboot and choose grubtest.cfg from the GRUB menu, using the arrow keys on your keyboard. Enter the name you chose, the GRUB password, your LUKS passphrase and login as root/your user. All went well? Great! If it does not work like you want it to, if you are unsure or sceptical -in any way, don\'t despair: you have been wise and did not brick your +in any way, don't despair: you have been wise and did not brick your device! Reboot and login the default way, and then modify your grubtest.cfg until you get it right! **Do \*not\* proceed past this point unless you are 100% sure that your new configuration is safe (or @@ -590,15 +590,15 @@ desirable) to use.** Now, we can easily and safely create a copy of grubtest.cfg, called grub.cfg. This will be the same except for one difference: the menuentry -\'Switch to grub.cfg\' is changed to \'Switch to grubtest.cfg\' and, +'Switch to grub.cfg' is changed to 'Switch to grubtest.cfg' and, inside it, all instances of grub.cfg to grubtest.cfg. This is so that the main config still links (in the menu) to grubtest.cfg, so that you -don\'t have to manually switch to it, in case you ever want to follow +don't have to manually switch to it, in case you ever want to follow this guide again in the future (modifying the already modified config). Inside libreboot\_util/cbfstool/{armv7l i686 x86\_64}, we can do this with the following command:\ -\$ **sed -e \'s:(cbfsdisk)/grub.cfg:(cbfsdisk)/grubtest.cfg:g\' -e -\'s:Switch to grub.cfg:Switch to grubtest.cfg:g\' &lt; grubtest.cfg &gt; +\$ **sed -e 's:(cbfsdisk)/grub.cfg:(cbfsdisk)/grubtest.cfg:g' -e +'s:Switch to grub.cfg:Switch to grubtest.cfg:g' &lt; grubtest.cfg &gt; grub.cfg**\ Delete the grub.cfg that remained inside the ROM:\ \$ **./cbfstool libreboot.rom remove -n grub.cfg**\ @@ -609,7 +609,7 @@ Now you have a modified ROM. Once more, refer to <http://libreboot.org/docs/install/#flashrom>. Cd to the libreboot\_util directory and update the flash chip contents:\ \# **./flash update libreboot.rom**\ -And wait for the \"Verifying flash\... VERIFIED.\" Once you have done +And wait for the "Verifying flash\... VERIFIED." Once you have done that, shut down and then boot up with your new configuration. When done, delete GRUB (remember, we only needed it for the @@ -643,7 +643,7 @@ Insert it into the luks volume:\ \# **cryptsetup luksAddKey /dev/sdX /etc/mykeyfile**\ and enter your LUKS passphrase when prompted. Add the keyfile to the initramfs by adding it to FILES in /etc/mkinitcpio.conf. For example:\ -\# **FILES=\"/etc/mykeyfile\"**\ +\# **FILES="/etc/mykeyfile"**\ Create the initramfs image from scratch:\ \# **mkinitcpio -p linux-libre**\ \# **mkinitcpio -p linux-libre-lts**\ diff --git a/docs/gnulinux/grub_boot_installer.md b/docs/gnulinux/grub_boot_installer.md @@ -35,7 +35,7 @@ Connect the USB drive. Check dmesg:\ Check lsblk to confirm which drive it is:\ **\$ lsblk** -Check that it wasn\'t automatically mounted. If it was, unmount it. For +Check that it wasn't automatically mounted. If it was, unmount it. For example:\ **\$ sudo umount /dev/sdX\***\ **\# umount /dev/sdX\*** @@ -78,7 +78,7 @@ Connect the USB drive. Check dmesg:\ Check to confirm which drive it is, for example, if you think its sd3:\ **\$ disklabel sd3** -Check that it wasn\'t automatically mounted. If it was, unmount it. For +Check that it wasn't automatically mounted. If it was, unmount it. For example:\ **\$ doas umount /dev/sd3i**\ @@ -112,12 +112,12 @@ Download the Debian or Devuan net installer. You can download the ISO from the homepage on [debian.org](https://www.debian.org/), or [the Devuan homepage](https://www.devuan.org/) for Devuan. Use this on the GRUB terminal to boot it from USB (for 64-bit Intel or AMD):\ -**set root=\'usb0\'\ +**set root='usb0'\ linux /install.amd/vmlinuz\ initrd /install.amd/initrd.gz\ boot\ ** If you are on a 32-bit system (e.g. X60):\ -**set root=\'usb0\'\ +**set root='usb0'\ linux /install.386/vmlinuz\ initrd /install.386/initrd.gz\ boot**\ @@ -146,7 +146,7 @@ Booting ISOLINUX images (manual method) distribution. You must adapt them appropriately, for whatever GNU+Linux distribution it is that you are trying to install.* -If the ISOLINUX parser or *Search for GRUB configuration* options won\'t +If the ISOLINUX parser or *Search for GRUB configuration* options won't work, then press C in GRUB to access the command line.\ grub&gt; **ls**\ Get the device from above output, eg (usb0). Example:\ @@ -170,12 +170,12 @@ options in txt.cfg. This is important if you want 64-bit booting on your system. Devuan versions based on Debian 8.x may also have the same issue. -Now look at the ISOLINUX menuentry. It\'ll look like:\ +Now look at the ISOLINUX menuentry. It'll look like:\ **kernel /path/to/kernel\ append PARAMETERS initrd=/path/to/initrd MAYBE\_MORE\_PARAMETERS\ -** GRUB works the same way, but in it\'s own way. Example GRUB +** GRUB works the same way, but in it's own way. Example GRUB commands:\ -grub&gt; **set root=\'usb0\'**\ +grub&gt; **set root='usb0'**\ grub&gt; **linux /path/to/kernel PARAMETERS MAYBE\_MORE\_PARAMETERS**\ grub&gt; **initrd /path/to/initrd**\ grub&gt; **boot**\ @@ -191,16 +191,16 @@ now be booting your USB drive in the way that you specified. Troubleshooting =============== -Most of these issues occur when using libreboot with coreboot\'s \'text -mode\' instead of the coreboot framebuffer. This mode is useful for +Most of these issues occur when using libreboot with coreboot's 'text +mode' instead of the coreboot framebuffer. This mode is useful for booting payloads like memtest86+ which expect text-mode, but for GNU+Linux distributions it can be problematic when they are trying to -switch to a framebuffer because it doesn\'t exist. +switch to a framebuffer because it doesn't exist. In most cases, you should use the vesafb ROM images. Example filename: libreboot\_ukdvorak\_vesafb.rom. -parabola won\'t boot in text-mode +parabola won't boot in text-mode --------------------------------- Use one of the ROM images with vesafb in the filename (uses coreboot @@ -209,11 +209,11 @@ framebuffer instead of text-mode). debian-installer graphical corruption in text-mode (Debian and Devuan) ---------------------------------------------------------------------- -When using the ROM images that use coreboot\'s \"text mode\" instead of +When using the ROM images that use coreboot's "text mode" instead of the coreboot framebuffer, booting the Debian or Devuan net installer results in graphical corruption because it is trying to switch to a -framebuffer which doesn\'t exist. Use that kernel parameter on the -\'linux\' line when booting it:\ +framebuffer which doesn't exist. Use that kernel parameter on the +'linux' line when booting it:\ **vga=normal fb=false** This forces debian-installer to start in text-mode, instead of trying to diff --git a/docs/gnulinux/grub_cbfs.md b/docs/gnulinux/grub_cbfs.md @@ -10,12 +10,12 @@ inside the flash chip. In context, this means that installing distributions and managing them is handled slightly differently compared to traditional BIOS systems. -A libreboot (or coreboot) ROM image is not simply \"flat\"; there is an +A libreboot (or coreboot) ROM image is not simply "flat"; there is an actual filesystem inside called CBFS (coreboot filesystem). A utility -called \'cbfstool\' allows you to change the contents of the ROM image. -In this case, libreboot is configured such that the \'grub.cfg\' and -\'grubtest.cfg\' files exist directly inside CBFS instead of inside the -GRUB payload \'memdisk\' (which is itself stored in CBFS). +called 'cbfstool' allows you to change the contents of the ROM image. +In this case, libreboot is configured such that the 'grub.cfg' and +'grubtest.cfg' files exist directly inside CBFS instead of inside the +GRUB payload 'memdisk' (which is itself stored in CBFS). You can either modify the GRUB configuration stored in the flash chip, or you can modify a GRUB configuration file on the main storage which @@ -35,7 +35,7 @@ Table of Contents ================= - [Introduction](#introduction) -- [1st option: don\'t re-flash](#option1_dont_reflash) +- [1st option: don't re-flash](#option1_dont_reflash) - [2nd option: re-flash](#option2_reflash) - [Acquire the necessary utilities](#tools) - [Acquiring the correct ROM image](#rom) @@ -61,14 +61,14 @@ in CBFS, but this also means that you have to flash a new libreboot ROM image on your system (some users feel intimidated by this, to say the least). Doing so can be risky if not handled correctly, because it can result in a bricked system (recovery is easy if you have the -[equipment](../install/bbb_setup.html) for it, but most people don\'t). -If you aren\'t up to that then don\'t worry; it is possible to use a +[equipment](../install/bbb_setup.html) for it, but most people don't). +If you aren't up to that then don't worry; it is possible to use a custom GRUB menu without flashing a new image, by loading a GRUB configuration from a partition on the main storage instead. -1st option: don\'t re-flash {#option1_dont_reflash} +1st option: don't re-flash {#option1_dont_reflash} --------------------------- By default, GRUB in libreboot is configured to scan all partitions on @@ -198,7 +198,7 @@ Ocassionally, coreboot changes the name of a given board. If flashrom complains about a board mismatch, but you are sure that you chose the correct ROM image, then run this alternative command:\ \# **./flash forceupdate libreboot.rom**\ -You should see **\"Verifying flash\... VERIFIED.\"** written at the end +You should see **"Verifying flash\... VERIFIED."** written at the end of the flashrom output. Once you have done that, shut down and then boot up with your new test configuration.** @@ -219,14 +219,14 @@ Final steps {#final_steps} When you are satisfied booting from grubtest.cfg, you can create a copy of grubtest.cfg, called grub.cfg. This is the same except for one -difference: the menuentry \'Switch to grub.cfg\' will be changed to -\'Switch to grubtest.cfg\' and inside it, all instances of grub.cfg to +difference: the menuentry 'Switch to grub.cfg' will be changed to +'Switch to grubtest.cfg' and inside it, all instances of grub.cfg to grubtest.cfg. This is so that the main config still links (in the menu) -to grubtest.cfg, so that you don\'t have to manually switch to it, in +to grubtest.cfg, so that you don't have to manually switch to it, in case you ever want to follow this guide again in the future (modifying the already modified config). From /libreboot\_util/cbfstool, do:\ -\$ **sed -e \'s:(cbfsdisk)/grub.cfg:(cbfsdisk)/grubtest.cfg:g\' -e -\'s:Switch to grub.cfg:Switch to grubtest.cfg:g\' &lt; grubtest.cfg &gt; +\$ **sed -e 's:(cbfsdisk)/grub.cfg:(cbfsdisk)/grubtest.cfg:g' -e +'s:Switch to grub.cfg:Switch to grubtest.cfg:g' &lt; grubtest.cfg &gt; grub.cfg**\ Delete the grub.cfg that remained inside the ROM:\ @@ -237,7 +237,7 @@ Add the modified version that you just made:\ **Now you have a modified ROM. Again, refer back to [../install/\#flashrom](../install/#flashrom) for information on how to -flash it. It\'s the same method as you used before. Shut down and then +flash it. It's the same method as you used before. Shut down and then boot up with your new configuration.** [Back to top of page.](#pagetop) diff --git a/docs/gnulinux/grub_hardening.md b/docs/gnulinux/grub_hardening.md @@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ on the [GPG project website](https://www.gnu.org/software/gnupg/). GRUB has some GPG support built in, for checking signatures. This tutorial assumes you have a libreboot image (rom) that you wish to -modify, to which we shall henceforth refer to as \"my.rom\". This +modify, to which we shall henceforth refer to as "my.rom". This tutorial modifies grubtest.cfg, this means signing and password protection will work after switching to it in the main boot menu and bricking due to incorrect configuration will be impossible. After you @@ -61,8 +61,8 @@ signature checking code currently looks for and as such it is not possible to supply signatures in an alternate location. -Note that this is not your LUKS password, but it\'s a password that you -have to enter in order to use \"restricted\" functionality (such as +Note that this is not your LUKS password, but it's a password that you +have to enter in order to use "restricted" functionality (such as console). This protects your system from an attacker simply booting a live USB and re-flashing your firmware. **This should be different than your LUKS passphrase and user password.** diff --git a/docs/grub/index.md b/docs/grub/index.md @@ -22,7 +22,7 @@ libreboot\_src/coreboot/util/cbfstool/ if you want to build from source. ./cbfstool yourrom.rom remove background.png -n background.png\ ./cbfstool yourrom.rom add -f background.png -n background.png -t raw -When you\'ve done this, re-flash your ROM and you should have a new +When you've done this, re-flash your ROM and you should have a new background at boot time. @@ -30,7 +30,7 @@ background at boot time. Setting font in GRUB (for reference) {#grub_font} ==================================== -You don\'t need to do this unless you would like to change the default +You don't need to do this unless you would like to change the default font yourself. (this is just for reference. It has already been done for you) @@ -57,7 +57,7 @@ libreboot) and did:\ **\$ ../../../grub/grub-mkfont -o dejavusansmono.pf2 dejavu-fonts-ttf-2.34/ttf/DejaVuSansMono.ttf** -I then added the instructions to \'gen.sh\' script in grub-assemble to +I then added the instructions to 'gen.sh' script in grub-assemble to include resources/grub/dejavusansmono.pf2 in all of the ROM images, at the root of the GRUB memdisk.\ I then added that instructions to the grub.cfg files (to load the @@ -84,7 +84,7 @@ Go in grub directory:\ **cat frazerty | ./grub/grub-mklayout -o frazerty.gkb** You must make sure that the files are named keymap and keymap.gkb (where -\'keymap\' can be whatever you want). +'keymap' can be whatever you want). Then from the above example, you would put **frazerty** in **resources/utilities/grub-assemble/keymap/original/** and the diff --git a/docs/hardware/index.md b/docs/hardware/index.md @@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ This section relates to hardware maintenance on supported targets. - [ThinkPad X60/X60S: change the fan/heatsink](x60_heatsink.html) - [ThinkPad X60/X60s: How to change the LCD panel](x60_lcd_change.html) (incomplete. pics only for now) -- [ThinkPad T60 15.1\" changing LCD panel](t60_lcd_15.html) +- [ThinkPad T60 15.1" changing LCD panel](t60_lcd_15.html) - [ThinkPad T60: change the fan/heatsink](t60_heatsink.html) - [ThinkPad X60/X60S: hardware security](x60_security.html) - [ThinkPad T60: hardware security](t60_security.html) diff --git a/docs/hardware/t60_heatsink.md b/docs/hardware/t60_heatsink.md @@ -79,7 +79,7 @@ It lives!\ ![](../images/t60_dev/0071.JPG) ![](../images/t60_dev/0072.JPG) ![](../images/t60_dev/0073.JPG) -Always stress test (\'stress -c 2\' and xsensors. below 90C is ok) when +Always stress test ('stress -c 2' and xsensors. below 90C is ok) when replacing cpu paste/heatsink:\ ![](../images/t60_dev/0074.JPG) diff --git a/docs/hardware/t60_lcd_15.md b/docs/hardware/t60_lcd_15.md @@ -1,10 +1,10 @@ -Changing the LCD panel on a 15.1\" T60 +Changing the LCD panel on a 15.1" T60 ====================================== -This is for the 15.1\" T60. If you have another size then the procedure -will differ; for example, on 14.1\" you have to remove the hinges and -the procedure is a bit more involved than on 15.1\". +This is for the 15.1" T60. If you have another size then the procedure +will differ; for example, on 14.1" you have to remove the hinges and +the procedure is a bit more involved than on 15.1". [Back to previous index](./) diff --git a/docs/hardware/t60_security.md b/docs/hardware/t60_security.md @@ -71,10 +71,10 @@ Now remove that bezel. Remove wifi, nvram battery and speaker connector Reason: has direct (and very fast) memory access, and could (theoretically) leak data over a side-channel.\ **Wifi:** The ath5k/ath9k cards might not have firmware at all. They -might safe but could have access to the computer\'s RAM trough DMA. If +might safe but could have access to the computer's RAM trough DMA. If people have an intel card(most T60 laptops come with Intel wifi by default, until you change it),then that card runs a non-free firwamre -and has access to the computer\'s RAM trough DMA! So the risk-level is +and has access to the computer's RAM trough DMA! So the risk-level is very high. Remove those screws:\ @@ -130,7 +130,7 @@ gently):\ **Rationale:**\ Another reason to remove the microphone: If your computer gets[\[1\]](#ref1) compromised, it can record what you say, and use it -to receive data from nearby devices if they\'re compromised too. Also, +to receive data from nearby devices if they're compromised too. Also, we do not know what the built-in microcode (in the CPU) is doing; it could theoretically be programmed to accept remote commands from some speaker somewhere (remote security hole). **In other words, the system @@ -139,12 +139,12 @@ could already be compromised from the factory.** Remove infrared:\ ![](../images/t60_dev/0040.JPG) ![](../images/t60_dev/0042.JPG) -Remove cardbus (it\'s in a socket, no need to disable. Just remove the +Remove cardbus (it's in a socket, no need to disable. Just remove the port itself):\ ![](../images/t60_dev/0041.JPG)\ **Rationale:**\ It has direct memory access and can be used to extract sensitive details -(such as LUKS keys). See \'GoodBIOS\' video linked at the end (speaker +(such as LUKS keys). See 'GoodBIOS' video linked at the end (speaker is Peter Stuge, a coreboot hacker). The video covers X60 but the same topics apply to T60. @@ -153,20 +153,20 @@ Before re-installing the upper chassis, remove the speaker:\ Reason: combined with the microphone issue, this could be used to leak data.\ If your computer gets[\[1\]](#ref1) compromised, it can be used to -transmit data to nearby compromised devices. It\'s unknown if it can be +transmit data to nearby compromised devices. It's unknown if it can be turned into a microphone[\[2\]](#ref2).\ Replacement: headphones/speakers (line-out) or external DAC (USB). Remove the wwan:\ ![](../images/t60_dev/0045.JPG)\ -**Wwan (3g modem):** They run proprietary software! It\'s like AMT but +**Wwan (3g modem):** They run proprietary software! It's like AMT but over the GSM network which is probably even worse.\ Replacement: external USB wifi dongle. (or USB wwan/3g dongle; note, this has all the same privacy issues as mobile phones. wwan not recommended). This is where the simcard connector is soldered. See notes above about -wwan. Remove simcard by removing battery and then it\'s accessible (so, +wwan. Remove simcard by removing battery and then it's accessible (so, remember to do this when you re-assemble. or you could do it now?)\ ![](../images/t60_dev/0046.JPG) @@ -221,7 +221,7 @@ It lives!\ ![](../images/t60_dev/0071.JPG) ![](../images/t60_dev/0072.JPG) ![](../images/t60_dev/0073.JPG) -Always stress test (\'stress -c 2\' and xsensors. below 90C is ok) when +Always stress test ('stress -c 2' and xsensors. below 90C is ok) when replacing cpu paste/heatsink:\ ![](../images/t60_dev/0074.JPG) @@ -273,11 +273,11 @@ Extra notes =========== EC: Cannot be removed but can be mitigated: it contains non-free -non-loadable code, but it has no access to the computer\'s RAM. It has +non-loadable code, but it has no access to the computer's RAM. It has access to the on-switch of the wifi, bluetooth, modem and some other power management features. The issue is that it has access to the keyboard, however if the software security howto **(not yet written)** -is followed correctly, it won\'t be able to leak data to a local +is followed correctly, it won't be able to leak data to a local attacker. It has no network access but it may still be able to leak data remotely, but that requires someone to be nearby to recover the data with the help of an SDR and some directional antennas[\[3\]](#ref3). @@ -332,11 +332,11 @@ more risky and more costly to attack people. \[2\] microphone {#ref2} ---------------- -It\'s possible to turn headphones into a microphone, you could try -yourself, however they don\'t record loud at all. Also intel cards have -the capability to change a connector\'s function, for instance the -microphone jack can now become a headphone plug, that\'s called -retasking. There is some support for it in GNU+Linux but it\'s not very +It's possible to turn headphones into a microphone, you could try +yourself, however they don't record loud at all. Also intel cards have +the capability to change a connector's function, for instance the +microphone jack can now become a headphone plug, that's called +retasking. There is some support for it in GNU+Linux but it's not very well known. diff --git a/docs/hardware/x60_heatsink.md b/docs/hardware/x60_heatsink.md @@ -23,7 +23,7 @@ Hardware requirements {#hardware_requirements} - isopropyl alcohol (sometimes called rubbing alcohol) - your new fan and/or heatsink - CPU thermal compound (some say Arctic MX-4 is good, others are also - \'ok\') + 'ok') - Something to spread the paste with diff --git a/docs/hardware/x60_keyboard.md b/docs/hardware/x60_keyboard.md @@ -7,7 +7,7 @@ for X60s and X60 Tablet. Although slightly different, this guide can also be followed for the ThinkPad X200, X200S and X200 Tablet. The screws are in more or less the -same place, and it\'s the same procedure. +same place, and it's the same procedure. [Back to previous index](./) diff --git a/docs/hardware/x60_security.md b/docs/hardware/x60_security.md @@ -84,11 +84,11 @@ The following is a summary of what you will remove (already done to this system):\ ![](../images/x60_security/0001_overview.jpg)\ Note: the blue lines represent antenna cables and modem cables. You -don\'t need to remove these, but you can if you want (to make it tidier +don't need to remove these, but you can if you want (to make it tidier after removing other parts). I removed the antenna wires, the modem jack, the modem cable and also (on another model) a device inside the -part where the wwan antenna goes (wasn\'t sure what it was, but I knew -it wasn\'t needed). **This is optional** +part where the wwan antenna goes (wasn't sure what it was, but I knew +it wasn't needed). **This is optional** Remove the microphone (can desolder it, but you can also easily pull it off with you hands). Already removed here:\ @@ -96,7 +96,7 @@ off with you hands). Already removed here:\ **Rationale:**\ Another reason to remove the microphone: If your computer gets[\[1\]](#ref1) compromised, it can record what you say, and use it -to receive data from nearby devices if they\'re compromised too. Also, +to receive data from nearby devices if they're compromised too. Also, we do not know what the built-in microcode (in the CPU) is doing; it could theoretically be programmed to accept remote commands from some speaker somewhere (remote security hole). **In other words, the system @@ -111,7 +111,7 @@ Remove the speaker:\ Reason: combined with the microphone issue, this could be used to leak data.\ If your computer gets[\[1\]](#ref1) compromised, it can be used to -transmit data to nearby compromised devices. It\'s unknown if it can be +transmit data to nearby compromised devices. It's unknown if it can be turned into a microphone[\[2\]](#ref2).\ Replacement: headphones/speakers (line-out) or external DAC (USB). @@ -120,12 +120,12 @@ Remove the wlan (also remove wwan if you have it):\ Reason: has direct (and very fast) memory access, and could (theoretically) leak data over a side-channel.\ **Wifi:** The ath5k/ath9k cards might not have firmware at all. They -might safe but could have access to the computer\'s RAM trough DMA. If +might safe but could have access to the computer's RAM trough DMA. If people have an intel card(most X60s come with Intel wifi by default, until you change it),then that card runs a non-free firwamre and has -access to the computer\'s RAM trough DMA! So the risk-level is very +access to the computer's RAM trough DMA! So the risk-level is very high.\ -**Wwan (3g modem):** They run proprietary software! It\'s like AMT but +**Wwan (3g modem):** They run proprietary software! It's like AMT but over the GSM network which is probably even worse.\ Replacement: external USB wifi dongle. (or USB wwan/3g dongle; note, this has all the same privacy issues as mobile phones. wwan not @@ -180,11 +180,11 @@ Extra notes =========== EC: Cannot be removed but can be mitigated: it contains non-free -non-loadable code, but it has no access to the computer\'s RAM. It has +non-loadable code, but it has no access to the computer's RAM. It has access to the on-switch of the wifi, bluetooth, modem and some other power management features. The issue is that it has access to the keyboard, however if the software security howto **(not yet written)** -is followed correctly, it won\'t be able to leak data to a local +is followed correctly, it won't be able to leak data to a local attacker. It has no network access but it may still be able to leak data remotely, but that requires someone to be nearby to recover the data with the help of an SDR and some directional antennas[\[3\]](#ref3). @@ -239,11 +239,11 @@ more risky and more costly to attack people. \[2\] microphone {#ref2} ---------------- -It\'s possible to turn headphones into a microphone, you could try -yourself, however they don\'t record loud at all. Also intel cards have -the capability to change a connector\'s function, for instance the -microphone jack can now become a headphone plug, that\'s called -retasking. There is some support for it in GNU+Linux but it\'s not very +It's possible to turn headphones into a microphone, you could try +yourself, however they don't record loud at all. Also intel cards have +the capability to change a connector's function, for instance the +microphone jack can now become a headphone plug, that's called +retasking. There is some support for it in GNU+Linux but it's not very well known. diff --git a/docs/hcl/c201.md b/docs/hcl/c201.md @@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ Flashing instructions can be found at -- [Google\'s intent with CrOS devices](#googlesintent) +- [Google's intent with CrOS devices](#googlesintent) - [Considerations about ChromeOS and free operating systems](#os) - [Caution: Video acceleration requires a non-free blob, software rendering can be used instead.](#videoblobs) @@ -33,7 +33,7 @@ Flashing instructions can be found at -Google\'s intent with CrOS devices {#googlesintent} +Google's intent with CrOS devices {#googlesintent} ================================== CrOS (Chromium OS/Chrome OS) devices, such as Chromebooks, were not @@ -47,14 +47,14 @@ generally friendly to the free software movement and try to be good members of the free software community, by contributing code back. CrOS devices are designed (from the factory) to actually coax the user -into using proprietary web services (SaaSS) that invade the user\'s +into using proprietary web services (SaaSS) that invade the user's privacy (ChromeOS is literally just the Google Chrome browser when you boot up, itself proprietary and comes with proprietary add-ons like -flash. It\'s only intended for SaaSS, not actual, real computing). +flash. It's only intended for SaaSS, not actual, real computing). Google is even a member of the *PRISM* program, as outlined by Edward Snowden. See notes about ChromeOS below. The libreboot project recommends that the user replace the default *ChromeOS* with a -distribution that can be used in freedom, without invading the user\'s +distribution that can be used in freedom, without invading the user's privacy. We also use a similar argument for the MacBook and the ThinkPads that @@ -70,8 +70,8 @@ Considerations about ChromeOS and free operating systems {#os} ======================================================== This laptop comes preinstalled (from the factory) with Google ChromeOS. -This is a GNU+Linux distribution, but it\'s not general purpose and it -comes with proprietary software. It\'s designed for SaaSS. Libreboot +This is a GNU+Linux distribution, but it's not general purpose and it +comes with proprietary software. It's designed for SaaSS. Libreboot recommends that users of this laptop replace it with another distribution. @@ -101,7 +101,7 @@ tasks can still be performed without video acceleration, without any noticeable performance penalty. In practise, this means that certain things like games, blender and -GNOME shell (or other fancy desktops) won\'t work well. The libreboot +GNOME shell (or other fancy desktops) won't work well. The libreboot project recommends a lightweight desktop which does not need video acceleration, such as *XFCE* or *LXDE*. @@ -143,7 +143,7 @@ too. EC firmware is free software! {#ec} ============================= -It\'s free software. Google provides the source. Build scripts will be +It's free software. Google provides the source. Build scripts will be added later, with EC sources provided in libreboot, and builds of the EC firmware. @@ -163,7 +163,7 @@ No microcode! {#microcode} Unlike x86 (e.g. Intel/AMD) CPUs, ARM CPUs do not use microcode, not even built in. On the Intel/AMD based libreboot systems, there is still microcode in the CPU (not considered problematic by the FSF, provided -that it is reasonably trusted to not be malicious, since it\'s part of +that it is reasonably trusted to not be malicious, since it's part of the hardware and read-only), but we exclude microcode updates (volatile updates which are uploaded at boot time by the boot firmware, if present), which are proprietary software. @@ -187,8 +187,8 @@ software, maintained by Google. Flash chip write protection: the screw {#thescrew} ====================================== -It\'s next to the flash chip. Unscrew it, and the flash chip is -read-write. Screw it back in, and the flash chip is read-only. It\'s +It's next to the flash chip. Unscrew it, and the flash chip is +read-write. Screw it back in, and the flash chip is read-only. It's called the screw. *The screw* is accessible by removing other screws and gently prying off @@ -203,7 +203,7 @@ of how to set up an SPI programmer. Write protection is useful, because it prevents the firmware from being re-flashed by any malicious software that might become executed on your GNU+Linux system, as root. In other words, it can prevent a -firmware-level *evil maid* attack. It\'s possible to write protect on +firmware-level *evil maid* attack. It's possible to write protect on all current libreboot systems, but CrOS devices make it easy. The screw is such a stupidly simple idea, which all designs should implement. diff --git a/docs/hcl/gm45_remove_me.md b/docs/hcl/gm45_remove_me.md @@ -48,7 +48,7 @@ Run:\ \$ **./ich9gen** Running ich9gen this way (without any arguments) generates a default -descriptor+gbe image with a generic MAC address. You probably don\'t +descriptor+gbe image with a generic MAC address. You probably don't want to use the generic one; the ROM images in libreboot contain a descriptor+gbe image by default (already inserted) just to prevent or mitigate the risk of bricking your laptop, but with the generic MAC @@ -61,10 +61,10 @@ correct MAC address in your ROM), dump it (flashrom -r) and read the first 6 bytes from position 0x1000 (or 0x2000) in a hex editor (or, rename it to factory.rom and run it in ich9deblob: in the newly created mkgbe.c will be the individual bytes of your MAC address). If you are -currently running the stock firmware and haven\'t installed libreboot +currently running the stock firmware and haven't installed libreboot yet, you can also run that through ich9deblob to get the mac address. -An even simpler way to get the MAC address would be to read what\'s on +An even simpler way to get the MAC address would be to read what's on the little sticker on the bottom/base of the laptop. On GM45 laptops that use flash descriptors, the MAC address or the @@ -140,7 +140,7 @@ protection or to flash yet another ROM image with write protection set in the descriptor). Flashrom will tell you that you can still forcefully re-flash, using *-p -internal:ich\_spi\_force=yes* but this won\'t actually work; it\'ll just +internal:ich\_spi\_force=yes* but this won't actually work; it'll just brick your laptop. For external flashing guides, refer to [../install/](../install/). @@ -246,7 +246,7 @@ TODO: test this.\ TODO: lenovobios (GM45 thinkpads) still write-protects parts of the flash. Modify the assembly code inside. Note: the factory.rom (BIOS region) from lenovobios is in a compressed format, which you have to -extract. bios\_extract upstream won\'t work, but the following was said +extract. bios\_extract upstream won't work, but the following was said in \#coreboot on freenode IRC: <roxfan> vimuser: try bios_extract with ffv patch http://patchwork.coreboot.org/patch/3444/ @@ -268,7 +268,7 @@ demefactory is part of the ich9deblob src, found at The sections below are adapted from (mostly) IRC logs related to early development getting the ME removed on GM45. They are useful for -background information. This could not have been done without sgsit\'s +background information. This could not have been done without sgsit's help. @@ -281,15 +281,15 @@ Early notes {#early_notes} - ~~**See reference to HDA\_SDO (disable descriptor security)**~~ strap connected GPIO33 pin is it on ICH9-M (X200). HDA\_SDO applies to later chipsets (series 6 or higher). Disabling descriptor - security also disables the ethernet according to sgsit. sgsit\'s - method involves use of \'soft straps\' (see IRC logs below) instead + security also disables the ethernet according to sgsit. sgsit's + method involves use of 'soft straps' (see IRC logs below) instead of disabling the descriptor. - **and the location of GPIO33 on the x200s: (was an external link. Putting it here instead)** [images/x200/gpio33\_location.jpg](images/x200/gpio33_location.jpg) - - it\'s above the number 7 on TP37 (which is above the big intel chip + it's above the number 7 on TP37 (which is above the big intel chip at the bottom) -- The ME datasheet may not be for the mobile chipsets but it doesn\'t +- The ME datasheet may not be for the mobile chipsets but it doesn't vary that much. This one gives some detail and covers QM67 which is what the X201 uses: <http://www.intel.co.uk/content/dam/www/public/us/en/documents/datasheets/6-chipset-c200-chipset-datasheet.pdf> @@ -386,7 +386,7 @@ Early development notes {#early_development_notes} -------------- Flash Erase Size = 0x1000 -It\'s a utility called \'Flash Image Tool\' for ME 4.x that was used for +It's a utility called 'Flash Image Tool' for ME 4.x that was used for this. You drag a complete image into in and the utility decomposes the various components, allowing you to set soft straps. @@ -419,7 +419,7 @@ The only actual content found was: DD CC 18 00 11 20 17 00 DD DD 18 00 12 20 17 00 00 80 1D 00 00 00 1F -The first part is the MAC address set to all 0x1F. It\'s repeated haly +The first part is the MAC address set to all 0x1F. It's repeated haly way through the 8K area, and the rest is all 0xFF. This is all documented in the datasheet. @@ -432,14 +432,14 @@ region. ### GBE region: change MAC address {#gbe_region_changemacaddress} -According to the datasheet, it\'s supposed to add up to 0xBABA but can +According to the datasheet, it's supposed to add up to 0xBABA but can actually be others on the X200. <https://communities.intel.com/community/wired/blog/2010/10/14/how-to-basic-eeprom-checksums> -*\"One of those engineers loves classic rock music, so they selected -0xBABA\"* +*"One of those engineers loves classic rock music, so they selected +0xBABA"* -In honour of the song *Baba O\'Reilly* by *The Who* apparently. We\'re +In honour of the song *Baba O'Reilly* by *The Who* apparently. We're not making this stuff up\... 0x3ABA, 0x34BA, 0x40BA and more have been observed in the main Gbe @@ -487,9 +487,9 @@ How to deblob: length to 0 - and you change the number of regions from 4 (zero based) to 2 -There\'s an interesting parameter called \'ME Alternate disable\', which +There's an interesting parameter called 'ME Alternate disable', which allows the ME to only handle hardware errata in the southbridge, but -disables any other functionality. This is similar to the \'ignition\' in +disables any other functionality. This is similar to the 'ignition' in the 5 series and higher but using the standard firmware instead of a small 128K version. Useless for libreboot, though. @@ -507,10 +507,10 @@ How to patch the descriptor from the factory.rom dump - extract the 8k GBe region and append that to the end of the 4k descriptor - output the 12k concatenated chunk -- Then it can be dd\'d into the first 12K part of a coreboot image. +- Then it can be dd'd into the first 12K part of a coreboot image. - the GBe region always starts 0x20A000 bytes from the end of the ROM -This means that libreboot\'s descriptor region will simply define the +This means that libreboot's descriptor region will simply define the following regions: - descriptor (4K) @@ -523,7 +523,7 @@ nearer to left than bit 12 in the binary representation). So, *x &lt;&lt; 12 = address* -If it\'s in descriptor mode, then the first 4 bytes will be 5A A5 F0 0F. +If it's in descriptor mode, then the first 4 bytes will be 5A A5 F0 0F. @@ -531,10 +531,10 @@ platform data partition in boot flash (factory.rom / lenovo bios) {#platform_dat ----------------------------------------------------------------- Basically useless for libreboot, since it appears to be a blob. Removing -it didn\'t cause any issues in libreboot. +it didn't cause any issues in libreboot. This is a 32K region from the factory image. It could be data -(non-functional) that the original Lenovo BIOS used, but we don\'t know. +(non-functional) that the original Lenovo BIOS used, but we don't know. It has only a 448 byte fragment different from 0x00 or 0xFF. diff --git a/docs/hcl/index.md b/docs/hcl/index.md @@ -54,10 +54,10 @@ Libreboot supports the following systems in this release: - [Apple MacBook1,1](#macbook11) - [Apple MacBook2,1](#macbook21) -\'Supported\' means that the build scripts know how to build ROM images +'Supported' means that the build scripts know how to build ROM images for these systems, and that the systems have been tested (confirmed working). There may be exceptions; in other words, this is a list of -\'officially\' supported systems. +'officially' supported systems. It is also possible to build ROM images (from source) for other systems (and virtual systems, e.g. QEMU). @@ -71,7 +71,7 @@ EC update on i945 (X60, T60) and GM45 (X200, T400, T500, R400) {#ecupdate} It is recommended that you update to the latest EC firmware version. The [EC firmware](https://libreboot.org/faq/#firmware-ec) is separate from -libreboot, so we don\'t actually provide that, but if you still have +libreboot, so we don't actually provide that, but if you still have Lenovo BIOS then you can just run the Lenovo BIOS update utility, which will update both the BIOS and EC version. See: @@ -93,13 +93,13 @@ How to find what EC version you have (i945/GM45) {#ecversion} ================================================ In GNU+Linux, you can try this:\ -**grep \'at EC\' /proc/asound/cards** +**grep 'at EC' /proc/asound/cards** Sample output:\ **ThinkPad Console Audio Control at EC reg 0x30, fw 7WHT19WW-3.6** 7WHT19WW is the version in different notation, use search engine to find -out regular version - in this case it\'s a 1.06 for x200 tablet +out regular version - in this case it's a 1.06 for x200 tablet [Back to top of page](#pagetop) @@ -116,7 +116,7 @@ The following are known to work well: - Any of the chipsets listed at <https://h-node.org/wifi/catalogue/en/1/1/undef/undef/yes?> -The following was mentioned (on IRC), but it\'s unknown to the libreboot +The following was mentioned (on IRC), but it's unknown to the libreboot project if these work with linux-libre kernel (TODO: test): - ar5bhb116 ar9382 ABGN @@ -130,9 +130,9 @@ project if these work with linux-libre kernel (TODO: test): List of supported ThinkPad X60s {#supported_x60_list} ------------------------------- -Native gpu initialization (\'native graphics\') which replaces the -proprietary VGA Option ROM (\'[Video -BIOS](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_BIOS)\' or \'VBIOS\'), all +Native gpu initialization ('native graphics') which replaces the +proprietary VGA Option ROM ('[Video +BIOS](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_BIOS)' or 'VBIOS'), all known LCD panels are currently compatible: To find what LCD panel you have, see: @@ -144,7 +144,7 @@ To find what LCD panel you have, see: - BOE-Hydis HT121X01-101: \# You can remove an X61/X61s motherboard from the chassis and install an -X60/X60s motherboard in it\'s place (for flashing libreboot). The +X60/X60s motherboard in it's place (for flashing libreboot). The chassis is mostly identical and the motherboards are the same shape/size. @@ -162,9 +162,9 @@ is very easily replaced; just remove the card and install another one List of supported ThinkPad X60 Tablets {#supported_x60t_list} -------------------------------------- -Native gpu initialization (\'native graphics\') which replaces the -proprietary VGA Option ROM (\'[Video -BIOS](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_BIOS)\' or \'VBIOS\'). +Native gpu initialization ('native graphics') which replaces the +proprietary VGA Option ROM ('[Video +BIOS](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_BIOS)' or 'VBIOS'). To find what LCD panel you have, see: [../misc/\#get\_edid\_panelname](../misc/#get_edid_panelname). @@ -180,7 +180,7 @@ There are 5 known LCD panels for the X60 Tablet: - BOE-Hydis HV121P01-101 (works) Most X60Ts only have digitizer (pen), but some have finger (touch) -aswell as pen; finger/multitouch doesn\'t work, only digitizer (pen) +aswell as pen; finger/multitouch doesn't work, only digitizer (pen) does. You can remove an X61/X61s motherboard from the chassis and install an @@ -250,9 +250,9 @@ could get finger input working. They used linuxwacom at git tag Supported T60 list {#supported_t60_list} ------------------ -Native gpu initialization (\'native graphics\') which replaces the -proprietary VGA Option ROM (\'[Video -BIOS](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_BIOS)\' or \'VBIOS\'). +Native gpu initialization ('native graphics') which replaces the +proprietary VGA Option ROM ('[Video +BIOS](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_BIOS)' or 'VBIOS'). To find what LCD panel you have, see: [../misc/\#get\_edid\_panelname](../misc/#get_edid_panelname). @@ -263,32 +263,32 @@ this.** Tested LCD panels: **working(compatible)** -- TMD-Toshiba LTD141EN9B (14.1\" 1400x1050) (FRU P/N 41W1478 +- TMD-Toshiba LTD141EN9B (14.1" 1400x1050) (FRU P/N 41W1478 recommended for the inverter board) -- Samsung LTN141P4-L02 (14.1\" 1400x1050) (FRU P/N 41W1478 recommended +- Samsung LTN141P4-L02 (14.1" 1400x1050) (FRU P/N 41W1478 recommended for the inverter board) -- LG-Philips LP150E05-A2K1 (15.1\" 1400x1050) (P/N 42T0078 FRU 42T0079 +- LG-Philips LP150E05-A2K1 (15.1" 1400x1050) (P/N 42T0078 FRU 42T0079 or P/N 41W1338 recommended for the inverter board) -- Samsung LTN150P4-L01 (15.1\" 1400x1050) (P/N 42T0078 FRU 42T0079 or +- Samsung LTN150P4-L01 (15.1" 1400x1050) (P/N 42T0078 FRU 42T0079 or P/N 41W1338 recommended for the inverter board) (not a T60 screen afaik, but it works) -- BOE-Hydis HV150UX1-100 (15.1\" 1600x1200) (P/N 42T0078 FRU 42T0079 +- BOE-Hydis HV150UX1-100 (15.1" 1600x1200) (P/N 42T0078 FRU 42T0079 or P/N 41W1338 recommended for the inverter board) Tested LCD panels: **not working yet (incompatible; see [../future/\#lcd\_i945\_incompatibility](../future/#lcd_i945_incompatibility))** -- Samsung LTN141XA-L01 (14.1\" 1024x768) -- LG-Philips LP150X09 (15.1\" 1024x768) -- Samsung LTN150XG (15.1\" 1024x768) -- LG-Philips LP150E06-A5K4 (15.1\" 1400x1050) (also, not an official +- Samsung LTN141XA-L01 (14.1" 1024x768) +- LG-Philips LP150X09 (15.1" 1024x768) +- Samsung LTN150XG (15.1" 1024x768) +- LG-Philips LP150E06-A5K4 (15.1" 1400x1050) (also, not an official T60 screen) -- Samsung LTN154X3-L0A (15.4\" 1280x800) -- IDtech IAQX10N (15.1\" 2048x1536) (no display in GRUB, display in +- Samsung LTN154X3-L0A (15.4" 1280x800) +- IDtech IAQX10N (15.1" 2048x1536) (no display in GRUB, display in GNU+Linux is temperamental) (P/N 42T0078 FRU 42T0079 or P/N 41W1338 recommended for the inverter board) -- IDtech N150U3-L01 (15.1\" 1600x1200) (no display in GRUB, display in +- IDtech N150U3-L01 (15.1" 1600x1200) (no display in GRUB, display in GNU+Linux works) (P/N 42T0078 FRU 42T0079 or P/N 41W1338 recommended for the inverter board) @@ -297,27 +297,27 @@ Tested LCD panels: **not working yet (incompatible; see *The following LCD panels are **UNTESTED**. If you have one of these panels then please submit a report!*: -- CMO(IDtech?) N141XC (14.1\" 1024x768) -- BOE-Hydis HT14X14 (14.1\" 1024x768) -- TMD-Toshiba LTD141ECMB (14.1\" 1024x768) -- Boe-Hydis HT14P12 (14.1\" 1400x1050) (FRU P/N 41W1478 recommended +- CMO(IDtech?) N141XC (14.1" 1024x768) +- BOE-Hydis HT14X14 (14.1" 1024x768) +- TMD-Toshiba LTD141ECMB (14.1" 1024x768) +- Boe-Hydis HT14P12 (14.1" 1400x1050) (FRU P/N 41W1478 recommended for the inverter board) -- CMO (IDtech?) 13N7068 (15.1\" 1024x768) -- CMO (IDtech?) 13N7069 (15.1\" 1024x768) -- BOE-Hydis HV150P01-100 (15.1\" 1400x1050) (P/N 42T0078 FRU 42T0079 +- CMO (IDtech?) 13N7068 (15.1" 1024x768) +- CMO (IDtech?) 13N7069 (15.1" 1024x768) +- BOE-Hydis HV150P01-100 (15.1" 1400x1050) (P/N 42T0078 FRU 42T0079 or P/N 41W1338 recommended for the inverter board) -- BOE-Hydis HV150UX1-102 (15.1\" 1600x1200) (P/N 42T0078 FRU 42T0079 +- BOE-Hydis HV150UX1-102 (15.1" 1600x1200) (P/N 42T0078 FRU 42T0079 or P/N 41W1338 recommended for the inverter board) -- IDtech IAQX10S (15.1\" 2048x1536) (P/N 42T0078 FRU 42T0079 or P/N +- IDtech IAQX10S (15.1" 2048x1536) (P/N 42T0078 FRU 42T0079 or P/N 41W1338 recommended for the inverter board) -- Samsung LTN154P2-L05 (42X4641 42T0329) (15.4\" 1680x1050) -- LG-Philips LP154W02-TL10 (13N7020 42T0423) (15.4\" 1680x1050) -- LG-Philips LP154WU1-TLB1 (42T0361) (15.4\" 1920x1200) **(for T61p +- Samsung LTN154P2-L05 (42X4641 42T0329) (15.4" 1680x1050) +- LG-Philips LP154W02-TL10 (13N7020 42T0423) (15.4" 1680x1050) +- LG-Philips LP154WU1-TLB1 (42T0361) (15.4" 1920x1200) **(for T61p but it might work in T60. Unknown!)** -- Samsung LTN154U2-L05 (42T0408 42T0574) (15.4\" 1920x1200) **(for +- Samsung LTN154U2-L05 (42T0408 42T0574) (15.4" 1920x1200) **(for T61p but it might work in T60. Unknown!)** -It is unknown whether the 1680x1050 (15.4\") and 1920x1200 (15.4\") +It is unknown whether the 1680x1050 (15.4") and 1920x1200 (15.4") panels use a different inverter board than the 1280x800 panels. The T60 typically comes with an Intel wifi chipset which does not work @@ -335,17 +335,17 @@ is very easily replaced; just remove the card and install another one ThinkPad T60 (ATI GPU) and ThinkPad T60 (Intel GPU) differences. {#t60_ati_intel} ---------------------------------------------------------------- -If your T60 is a 14.1\" or 15.1\" model with an ATI GPU, it won\'t work +If your T60 is a 14.1" or 15.1" model with an ATI GPU, it won't work with libreboot by default but you can replace the motherboard with another T60 motherboard that has an Intel GPU, and then libreboot should work. -As far as I know, 14.1\" (Intel GPU) and 15.1\" (Intel GPU) T60 -motherboards are the same, where \'spacers\' are used on the 15.1\" T60. +As far as I know, 14.1" (Intel GPU) and 15.1" (Intel GPU) T60 +motherboards are the same, where 'spacers' are used on the 15.1" T60. In any case, it makes sense to find one that is guaranteed to fit in your chassis. -There is also a 15.4\" T60 with Intel GPU. +There is also a 15.4" T60 with Intel GPU. Note: the T60**p** laptops all have ATI graphics. The T60p laptops cannot be used with libreboot under any circumstances. @@ -361,17 +361,17 @@ The reason that the ATI GPU on T60 is unsupported is due to the VBIOS has been reverse engineered, and replaced with Free Software and so will work in libreboot. -The \'Video BIOS\' is what initializes graphics. +The 'Video BIOS' is what initializes graphics. See: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_BIOS>.\ In fact, lack of free VBIOS in general is a big problem in coreboot, and is one reason (among others) why many ports for coreboot are unsuitable -for libreboot\'s purpose. +for libreboot's purpose. Theoretically, the ThinkPad T60 with ATI GPU can work with libreboot and have ROM images compiled for it, however in practise it would not be usable as a laptop because there would be no visual display at all. That -being said, such a configuration is acceptable for use in a \'headless\' +being said, such a configuration is acceptable for use in a 'headless' server setup (with serial and/or ssh console as the display). [Back to top of page.](#pagetop) @@ -410,7 +410,7 @@ Also of interest: [../git/\#config\_macbook21](../git/#config_macbook21). Unbricking: [this page shows disassembly -guides](https://www.ifixit.com/Device/MacBook_Core_2_Duo) and mono\'s +guides](https://www.ifixit.com/Device/MacBook_Core_2_Duo) and mono's page (see [\#macbook21](#macbook21)) shows the location of the SPI flash chip on the motherboard. [How to remove the motherboard](https://www.ifixit.com/Guide/MacBook+Core+2+Duo+PRAM+Battery+Replacement/529). @@ -445,7 +445,7 @@ http://macbook.donderklumpen.de/coreboot/**\ Use **-e robots=off** if using this trick for other sites and the site restricts using robots.txt -**Links to wget backups (and the backups themselves) of Mono\'s pages +**Links to wget backups (and the backups themselves) of Mono's pages (see above) removed temporarily. Mono has given me permission to distribute them, but I need to ask this person to tell me what license these works fall under first. Otherwise, the above URLs should be fine. @@ -455,14 +455,14 @@ NOTE TO SELF: REMOVE THIS WHEN DONE** ### Installing GNU+Linux distributions (on Apple EFI firmware) - [Parabola GNU+Linux installation on a macbook2,1 with Apple EFI - firmware](#) (this is a copy of Mono\'s page, see above) + firmware](#) (this is a copy of Mono's page, see above) How to boot an ISO: burn it to a CD (like you would normally) and hold down the Alt/Control key while booting. The bootloader will detect the -GNU+Linux CD as \'Windows\' (because Apple doesn\'t think GNU+Linux +GNU+Linux CD as 'Windows' (because Apple doesn't think GNU+Linux exists). Install it like you normally would. When you boot up again, hold Alt/Control once more. The installation (on the HDD) will once -again be seen as \'Windows\'. (it\'s not actually Windows, but Apple +again be seen as 'Windows'. (it's not actually Windows, but Apple likes to think that Apple and Microsoft are all that exist.) Now to install libreboot, follow [../install/\#flashrom\_macbook21](../install/#flashrom_macbook21). @@ -471,7 +471,7 @@ install libreboot, follow ### Information about coreboot -- [Coreboot on the macbook2,1](#) (this is a copy of Mono\'s page, see +- [Coreboot on the macbook2,1](#) (this is a copy of Mono's page, see above) @@ -506,7 +506,7 @@ Also of interest: [../git/\#config\_macbook21](../git/#config_macbook21). Unbricking: [this page shows disassembly -guides](https://www.ifixit.com/Device/MacBook_Core_2_Duo) and mono\'s +guides](https://www.ifixit.com/Device/MacBook_Core_2_Duo) and mono's page (see above) shows the location of the SPI flash chip on the motherboard. [How to remove the motherboard](https://www.ifixit.com/Guide/MacBook+Core+2+Duo+PRAM+Battery+Replacement/529). @@ -515,7 +515,7 @@ For external flashing, refer to [../install/bbb\_setup.html](../install/bbb_setup.html). You need to replace OS X with GNU+Linux before flashing libreboot. (OSX -won\'t run at all in libreboot). +won't run at all in libreboot). There are some issues with this system (compared to other computers that libreboot supports): @@ -584,7 +584,7 @@ A user reported that the above is only for linux kernel 3.15 or lower. For newer kernels, the touchpad works fine out of the box, except middle tapping. -A user submitted a utility to enable 3-finger tap on this laptop. It\'s +A user submitted a utility to enable 3-finger tap on this laptop. It's available at *resources/utilities/macbook21-three-finger-tap* in the libreboot git repository. diff --git a/docs/hcl/kcma-d8.md b/docs/hcl/kcma-d8.md @@ -49,11 +49,11 @@ identical, but the position of the screws are different. IPMI iKVM module add-on {#ipmi} ======================= -Don\'t use it. It uses proprietary firmware and adds a backdoor (remote +Don't use it. It uses proprietary firmware and adds a backdoor (remote out-of-band management chip, similar to the [Intel Management Engine](http://libreboot.org/faq/#intelme). Fortunately, the firmware is unsigned (possibly to replace) and physically separate from the -mainboard since it\'s on the add-on module, which you don\'t have to +mainboard since it's on the add-on module, which you don't have to install. @@ -61,7 +61,7 @@ install. Flash chips {#flashchips} =========== -2MiB flash chips are included by default, on these boards. It\'s on a +2MiB flash chips are included by default, on these boards. It's on a P-DIP 8 slot (SPI chip). The flash chip can be upgraded to higher sizes: 4MiB, 8MiB or 16MiB. With at least 8MiB, you could feasibly fit a compressed linux+initramfs image (BusyBox+Linux system) into CBFS and @@ -94,15 +94,15 @@ Current issues {#issues} can be on a SAS drive. The linux kernel can use those SAS drives (via PIKE module) without an option ROM). - IPMI iKVM module (optional add-on card) uses proprietary firmware. - Since it\'s for remote out-of-band management, it\'s theoretically a + Since it's for remote out-of-band management, it's theoretically a backdoor similar to the Intel Management Engine. Fortunately, unlike the ME, this firmware is unsigned which means that a free replacement is theoretically possible. For now, the libreboot project recommends not installing the module. [This project](https://github.com/facebook/openbmc) might be interesting to derive from, for those who want to work on a free replacement. In - practise, out-of-band management isn\'t very useful anyway (or at - the very least, it\'s not a major inconvenience to not have it). + practise, out-of-band management isn't very useful anyway (or at + the very least, it's not a major inconvenience to not have it). - Graphics: only text-mode works. See [\#graphics](#graphics) diff --git a/docs/hcl/kfsn4-dre.md b/docs/hcl/kfsn4-dre.md @@ -67,11 +67,11 @@ Current issues {#issues} - There seems to be a 30 second bootblock delay (observed by tpearson); the system otherwise boots and works as expected. See [text/kfsn4-dre/bootlog.txt](text/kfsn4-dre/bootlog.txt) - this uses - the \'simple\' bootblock, while tpearson uses the \'normal\' + the 'simple' bootblock, while tpearson uses the 'normal' bootblock, which tpearson suspects may be a possible cause. This person says that they will look into it. [This config](http://review.coreboot.org/gitweb?p=board-status.git;a=blob;f=asus/kfsn4-dre/4.0-10101-g039edeb/2015-06-27T03:59:16Z/config.txt;h=4742905c185a93fbda8eb14322dd82c70641aef0;hb=055f5df4e000a97453dfad6c91c2d06ea22b8545) - doesn\'t have the issue. + doesn't have the issue. - Text-mode is a bit jittery (but still usable). (the jitter disappears if using KMS, once the kernel starts. The jitter will remain, if booting the kernel in text-mode). diff --git a/docs/hcl/kgpe-d16.md b/docs/hcl/kgpe-d16.md @@ -50,11 +50,11 @@ identical, but the position of the screws are different. IPMI iKVM module add-on {#ipmi} ======================= -Don\'t use it. It uses proprietary firmware and adds a backdoor (remote +Don't use it. It uses proprietary firmware and adds a backdoor (remote out-of-band management chip, similar to the [Intel Management Engine](http://libreboot.org/faq/#intelme). Fortunately, the firmware is unsigned (possibly to replace) and physically separate from the -mainboard since it\'s on the add-on module, which you don\'t have to +mainboard since it's on the add-on module, which you don't have to install. @@ -62,7 +62,7 @@ install. Flash chips {#flashchips} =========== -2MiB flash chips are included by default, on these boards. It\'s on a +2MiB flash chips are included by default, on these boards. It's on a P-DIP 8 slot (SPI chip). The flash chip can be upgraded to higher sizes: 4MiB, 8MiB or 16MiB. With at least 8MiB, you could feasibly fit a compressed linux+initramfs image (BusyBox+Linux system) into CBFS and @@ -95,15 +95,15 @@ Current issues {#issues} can be on a SAS drive. The linux kernel can use those SAS drives (via PIKE module) without an option ROM). - IPMI iKVM module (optional add-on card) uses proprietary firmware. - Since it\'s for remote out-of-band management, it\'s theoretically a + Since it's for remote out-of-band management, it's theoretically a backdoor similar to the Intel Management Engine. Fortunately, unlike the ME, this firmware is unsigned which means that a free replacement is theoretically possible. For now, the libreboot project recommends not installing the module. [This project](https://github.com/facebook/openbmc) might be interesting to derive from, for those who want to work on a free replacement. In - practise, out-of-band management isn\'t very useful anyway (or at - the very least, it\'s not a major inconvenience to not have it). + practise, out-of-band management isn't very useful anyway (or at + the very least, it's not a major inconvenience to not have it). - Graphics: only text-mode works. See [\#graphics](#graphics) @@ -166,7 +166,7 @@ The information here is adapted, from the ASUS website. ### Form factor {#form-factor} -- SSI EEB 3.61 (12\"x13\") +- SSI EEB 3.61 (12"x13") ### ASUS features diff --git a/docs/hcl/r400.md b/docs/hcl/r400.md @@ -28,7 +28,7 @@ EC update {#ecupdate} It is recommended that you update to the latest EC firmware version. The [EC firmware](https://libreboot.org/faq/#firmware-ec) is separate from -libreboot, so we don\'t actually provide that, but if you still have +libreboot, so we don't actually provide that, but if you still have Lenovo BIOS then you can just run the Lenovo BIOS update utility, which will update both the BIOS and EC version. See: @@ -54,7 +54,7 @@ The R400, when run without CPU microcode updates in coreboot, currently kernel panics if running QEMU with vt-x enabled on 2 cores for the guest. With a single core enabled for the guest, the guest panics (but the host is fine). Working around this in QEMU might be possible; if -not, software virtualization should work fine (it\'s just slower). +not, software virtualization should work fine (it's just slower). On GM45 hardware (with libreboot), make sure that the *kvm* and *kvm\_intel* kernel modules are not loaded, when using QEMU. diff --git a/docs/hcl/t400.md b/docs/hcl/t400.md @@ -28,7 +28,7 @@ EC update {#ecupdate} It is recommended that you update to the latest EC firmware version. The [EC firmware](https://libreboot.org/faq/#firmware-ec) is separate from -libreboot, so we don\'t actually provide that, but if you still have +libreboot, so we don't actually provide that, but if you still have Lenovo BIOS then you can just run the Lenovo BIOS update utility, which will update both the BIOS and EC version. See: @@ -54,7 +54,7 @@ The T400, when run without CPU microcode updates in coreboot, currently kernel panics if running QEMU with vt-x enabled on 2 cores for the guest. With a single core enabled for the guest, the guest panics (but the host is fine). Working around this in QEMU might be possible; if -not, software virtualization should work fine (it\'s just slower). +not, software virtualization should work fine (it's just slower). On GM45 hardware (with libreboot), make sure that the *kvm* and *kvm\_intel* kernel modules are not loaded, when using QEMU. diff --git a/docs/hcl/t500.md b/docs/hcl/t500.md @@ -28,7 +28,7 @@ EC update {#ecupdate} It is recommended that you update to the latest EC firmware version. The [EC firmware](https://libreboot.org/faq/#firmware-ec) is separate from -libreboot, so we don\'t actually provide that, but if you still have +libreboot, so we don't actually provide that, but if you still have Lenovo BIOS then you can just run the Lenovo BIOS update utility, which will update both the BIOS and EC version. See: @@ -54,7 +54,7 @@ The T500, when run without CPU microcode updates in coreboot, currently kernel panics if running QEMU with vt-x enabled on 2 cores for the guest. With a single core enabled for the guest, the guest panics (but the host is fine). Working around this in QEMU might be possible; if -not, software virtualization should work fine (it\'s just slower). +not, software virtualization should work fine (it's just slower). On GM45 hardware (with libreboot), make sure that the *kvm* and *kvm\_intel* kernel modules are not loaded, when using QEMU. @@ -86,7 +86,7 @@ were something like:\ \$ **diff -u t500descriptor x200descriptor** ME VSCC table is in a different place and a different size on the T500. -Libreboot disables and removes the ME anyway, so it doesn\'t matter. +Libreboot disables and removes the ME anyway, so it doesn't matter. The very same descriptor/gbe used on the X200 (generated by [ich9gen](gm45_remove_me.html#ich9gen)) was re-used on the T500, and it diff --git a/docs/hcl/x200.md b/docs/hcl/x200.md @@ -7,7 +7,7 @@ Tablet will also work, [depending on the configuration](#x200s). It \*might\* be possible to put an X200 motherboard in an X201 chassis, though this is currently untested by the libreboot project. The same may -also apply between X200S and X201S; again, this is untested. **It\'s +also apply between X200S and X201S; again, this is untested. **It's most likely true.** There are two possible flash chip sizes for the X200: 4MiB (32Mbit) or @@ -31,7 +31,7 @@ EC update {#ecupdate} It is recommended that you update to the latest EC firmware version. The [EC firmware](https://libreboot.org/faq/#firmware-ec) is separate from -libreboot, so we don\'t actually provide that, but if you still have +libreboot, so we don't actually provide that, but if you still have Lenovo BIOS then you can just run the Lenovo BIOS update utility, which will update both the BIOS and EC version. See: @@ -57,7 +57,7 @@ The X200, when run without CPU microcode updates in coreboot, currently kernel panics if running QEMU with vt-x enabled on 2 cores for the guest. With a single core enabled for the guest, the guest panics (but the host is fine). Working around this in QEMU might be possible; if -not, software virtualization should work fine (it\'s just slower). +not, software virtualization should work fine (it's just slower). On GM45 hardware (with libreboot), make sure that the *kvm* and *kvm\_intel* kernel modules are not loaded, when using QEMU. @@ -108,11 +108,11 @@ this case are 2x4GB. ~~**However, not all configurations work: [text/x200s/cblog03.txt](text/x200s/cblog03.txt) (1x2GB) show a failed bootup.**~~ *False alarm. The modules were mixed (non-matching). X200S with high-performance mode CPU will work so long as you use matching -memory modules (doesn\'t matter what size).* +memory modules (doesn't matter what size).* This was then pushed as a patch for coreboot, which can be found at <http://review.coreboot.org/#/c/7786/> (libreboot merges this patch in -coreboot-libre now. Check the \'getcb\' script in src or git). +coreboot-libre now. Check the 'getcb' script in src or git). ### Proper GS45 raminit {#x200s_raminit} @@ -136,7 +136,7 @@ based on that. -Trouble undocking (button doesn\'t work) +Trouble undocking (button doesn't work) ---------------------------------------- This person seems to have a workaround: @@ -220,9 +220,9 @@ CCFL inverter is high-voltage and will destroy an LED backlit panel). CCFLs contain mercury. An X200 with a CCFL backlight will (****unless it has been changed to an LED, with the correct inverter. Check with your -supplier!) the following: *\"This product contains Lithium Ion Battery, +supplier!) the following: *"This product contains Lithium Ion Battery, Lithium Battery and a lamp which contains mercury; dispose according to -local, state or federal laws\"* (one with an LED backlit panel will say +local, state or federal laws"* (one with an LED backlit panel will say something different). [Back to top of page.](#pagetop) @@ -246,7 +246,7 @@ RAM, S3 and microcode updates {#ram_s3_microcode} ============================= Not all memory modules work. Most of the default ones do, but you have -to be careful when upgrading to 8GiB; some modules work, some don\'t. +to be careful when upgrading to 8GiB; some modules work, some don't. Someone on reddit also did their own research on RAM compatibility: [on this @@ -258,17 +258,17 @@ different, so this page might be BS) pehjota started collecting some steppings for different CPUs on several X200 laptops. You can get the CPUID by running:\ -\$ **dmesg | sed -n \'s/\^.\* microcode: CPU0 -sig=0x\\(\[\^,\]\*\\),.\*\$/\\1/p\'** +\$ **dmesg | sed -n 's/\^.\* microcode: CPU0 +sig=0x\\(\[\^,\]\*\\),.\*\$/\\1/p'** What pehjota wrote: The laptops that have issues resuming from suspend, -as well as a laptop that (as I mentioned earlier in \#libreboot) won\'t +as well as a laptop that (as I mentioned earlier in \#libreboot) won't boot with any Samsung DIMMs, all have CPUID 0x10676 (stepping M0). What pehjota wrote: Laptops with CPUID 0x167A (stepping R0) resume -properly every time and work with Samsung DIMMs. I\'ll need to do more +properly every time and work with Samsung DIMMs. I'll need to do more testing on more units to better confirm these trends, but it looks like -the M0 microcode is very buggy. That would also explain why I didn\'t +the M0 microcode is very buggy. That would also explain why I didn't have issues with Samsung DIMMs with the Lenovo BIOS (which would have microcode updates). I wonder if VT-x works on R0. @@ -278,9 +278,9 @@ factory microcode. (1067 is the family and model, and 6 or A is the stepping ID.) **TODO: check the CPUIDs and test S3 resume and/or KVM on any C2D -systems (including non-P8xxx ones, which I don\'t have here) you have -available. I\'d be curious if you could confirm these results.** It -might not be coreboot that\'s buggy with raminit/S3; it might just be +systems (including non-P8xxx ones, which I don't have here) you have +available. I'd be curious if you could confirm these results.** It +might not be coreboot that's buggy with raminit/S3; it might just be down to the microcode updates. @@ -297,7 +297,7 @@ Unsorted notes {#unsorted} Copyright © 2014, 2015 Leah Rowe &lt;info@minifree.org&gt;\ -Copyright © 2015 Patrick \"P. J.\" McDermott &lt;pj@pehjota.net&gt;\ +Copyright © 2015 Patrick "P. J." McDermott &lt;pj@pehjota.net&gt;\ Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license or any later version published by Creative diff --git a/docs/index.md b/docs/index.md @@ -58,7 +58,7 @@ About the libreboot project Libreboot is a free BIOS or UEFI replacement ([free as in freedom](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_software)); libre *boot firmware* that initializes the hardware and starts a bootloader for your -operating system. It\'s also an open source BIOS, but open source fails +operating system. It's also an open source BIOS, but open source fails to promote freedom; *please call libreboot **[free software](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_software)***. @@ -67,14 +67,14 @@ by the [Ministry of Freedom](https://minifree.org) to achieve RYF endorsement for a modified ThinkPad X60 (the first system to ever be added to libreboot), which it did then achieve. -Back then, the name *libreboot* didn\'t exist; the project was nameless, +Back then, the name *libreboot* didn't exist; the project was nameless, referring to itself as a *deblobbed version of coreboot*. The project named itself libreboot at some point during early 2014, and has since rapidly expanded to support more hardware and become more user-friendly. Libreboot is a [coreboot](http://coreboot.org/) distribution (distro) with proprietary software removed, intended to be a -[free](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_software) (libre) \'BIOS\' +[free](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_software) (libre) 'BIOS' replacement for your computer. The project is aimed at users, attempting to make coreboot as easy to use as possible. @@ -92,7 +92,7 @@ The libreboot project has three main goals: on some systems. Examples can include things like CPU microcode updates, memory initialization blobs and so on. The coreboot project sometimes recommends adding more blobs which it does not distribute, - such as the Video BIOS or Intel\'s *Management Engine*. However, a + such as the Video BIOS or Intel's *Management Engine*. However, a lot of dedicated and talented individuals in coreboot work hard to replace these blobs whenever possible. - ***Support as much hardware as possible!*** Libreboot supports less @@ -140,7 +140,7 @@ at a later date, when it updates itself. The deblobbed coreboot tree used in libreboot is referred to as *coreboot-libre*, to distinguish it as a component of *libreboot*. -Libreboot is a \'stable\' version of coreboot +Libreboot is a 'stable' version of coreboot --------------------------------------------- - Coreboot uses the [rolling @@ -159,7 +159,7 @@ Libreboot is a \'stable\' version of coreboot -How do I know what version I\'m running? +How do I know what version I'm running? ======================================== If you are at least 127 commits after release 20150518 (commit message @@ -175,13 +175,13 @@ archives that you downloaded (if you are using release archives). If it exists, you can also extract this *lbversion* file by using the *cbfstool* utility which libreboot includes, from a ROM image that you -either dumped or haven\'t flashed yet. In your distribution, run +either dumped or haven't flashed yet. In your distribution, run cbfstool on your ROM image (*libreboot.rom*, in this example):\ \$ **./cbfstool libreboot.rom extract -n lbversion -f lbversion**\ You will now have a file, named *lbversion*, which you can read in whatever program it is that you use for reading/writing text files. -For git, it\'s easy. Just check the git log. +For git, it's easy. Just check the git log. For releases on or below 20150518, or snapshots generated from the git repository below 127 commits after 20150518, you can find a file named diff --git a/docs/install/bbb_setup.md b/docs/install/bbb_setup.md @@ -40,13 +40,13 @@ Hardware requirements Shopping list (pictures of this hardware is shown later): - A [Flashrom](http://flashrom.org)-compatible external SPI - programmer: **BeagleBone Black**, sometimes referred to as \'BBB\', + programmer: **BeagleBone Black**, sometimes referred to as 'BBB', (rev. C) is highly recommended. You can buy one from [Adafruit](https://www.adafruit.com) (USA), [ElectroKit](http://electrokit.com) (Sweden) or any of the distributors listed [here](http://beagleboard.org/black) (look below - \'Purchase\'). We recommend this product because we know that it - works well for our purposes and doesn\'t require any non-free + 'Purchase'). We recommend this product because we know that it + works well for our purposes and doesn't require any non-free software. - Electrical/insulative tape: cover the entire bottom surface of the BBB (the part that rests on a surface). This is important, when @@ -63,14 +63,14 @@ Shopping list (pictures of this hardware is shown later): ships to many countries. Some people find these clips difficult to get hold of, especially in South America. If you know of any good suppliers, please contact the libreboot project with the relevant - information. **If you can\'t get hold of a pomona clip, some other + information. **If you can't get hold of a pomona clip, some other clips might work, e.g. 3M, but they are not always reliable. You can also directly solder the wires to the chip, if that suits you; the clip is just for convenience, really.** - **External 3.3V DC power supply**, for powering the flash chip: an ATX power supply / PSU (common on Intel/AMD desktop computers) will work for this. A lab PSU (DC) will also work (adjusted to 3.3V). - - Getting a multimeter might be worthwhile, to verify that it\'s + - Getting a multimeter might be worthwhile, to verify that it's supplying 3.3V. - **External 5V DC power supply** (barrel connector), for powering the BBB: the latter can have power supplied via USB, but a dedicated @@ -78,7 +78,7 @@ Shopping list (pictures of this hardware is shown later): places that sell electronics. **OPTIONAL. Only needed if not powering with the USB cable, or if you want to use [EHCI debug](../misc/bbb_ehci.html)**. -- **Pin header / jumper cables** (2.54mm / 0.1\" headers): you should +- **Pin header / jumper cables** (2.54mm / 0.1" headers): you should get male\--male, male\--female and female\--female cables in 10cm size. Just get a load of them. Other possible names for these cables/wires/leads are as follows: @@ -123,14 +123,14 @@ PS\_ON\# (this is also how an ATX motherboard turns on a PSU). 20-pin ATX PSU), and DO \*\*NOT\*\* use pin 21, 22 or 23 (on a 24-pin ATX PSU). Those wires (the red ones) are 5V, and they \*\*WILL\*\* kill your flash chip. \*\*\*NEVER\*\*\* supply more than 3.3V to your flash -chip (that is, if it\'s a 3.3V flash chip; 5V and 1.8V SPI flash chips +chip (that is, if it's a 3.3V flash chip; 5V and 1.8V SPI flash chips do exist, but they are rare. Always check what voltage your chip takes. Most of them take 3.3V).** You only need one 3.3V supply and one ground for the flash chip, after grounding PS\_ON\#. -The male end of a 0.1\" or 2.54mm header cable is not thick enough to +The male end of a 0.1" or 2.54mm header cable is not thick enough to remain permanently connected to the ATX PSU on its own. When connecting header cables to the connector on the ATX PSU, use a female end attached to a thicker piece of wire (you could use a paper clip), or wedge the @@ -188,7 +188,7 @@ element14 brand BBB (sold by Premier Farnell plc. stores like Farnell element14, Newark element14, and Embest), you may need to [work around a bug](https://groups.google.com/forum/?_escaped_fragment_=msg/beagleboard/LPjCn4LEY2I/alozBGsbTJMJ#!msg/beagleboard/LPjCn4LEY2I/alozBGsbTJMJ) in the LED aging init script before you can update your software. If you -don\'t have a file named /etc/init.d/led\_aging.sh, you can skip this +don't have a file named /etc/init.d/led\_aging.sh, you can skip this step and update your software as described below. Otherwise, replace the contents of this file with: @@ -260,7 +260,7 @@ Output: No EEPROM/flash device found. Note: flashrom can never write if the flash chip isn't found automatically. -This means that it\'s working (the clip isn\'t connected to any flash +This means that it's working (the clip isn't connected to any flash chip, so the error is fine). @@ -351,7 +351,7 @@ use higher speeds while maintaining stability. tty0\_ in \#libreboot was able to get better flashing speeds with the following configuration: -- \"coax\" with 0.1 mm core and aluminum foley (from my kitchen), add +- "coax" with 0.1 mm core and aluminum foley (from my kitchen), add 100 Ohm resistors (serial) - put heatshrink above the foley, for: CS, CLK, D0, D1 - Twisted pair used as core (in case more capacitors are needed) @@ -361,7 +361,7 @@ following configuration: Copyright © 2014, 2015 Leah Rowe &lt;info@minifree.org&gt;\ -Copyright © 2015 Patrick \"P. J.\" McDermott &lt;pj@pehjota.net&gt;\ +Copyright © 2015 Patrick "P. J." McDermott &lt;pj@pehjota.net&gt;\ Copyright © 2015 Albin Söderqvist\ Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 diff --git a/docs/install/c201.md b/docs/install/c201.md @@ -16,12 +16,12 @@ Look at the [list of ROM images](#rom) to see which image is compatible with your device. Libreboot can be installed internally from the device, with sufficient -privileges. The installation process requires using **Google\'s modified -version of flashrom**, that has support for reflashing the Chromebook\'s +privileges. The installation process requires using **Google's modified +version of flashrom**, that has support for reflashing the Chromebook's SPI flash. Otherwise, flashing externally will work with the upstream flashrom version. -**Google\'s modified version of flashrom** is free software and its +**Google's modified version of flashrom** is free software and its source code is made available by Google: [flashrom](https://chromium.googlesource.com/chromiumos/third_party/flashrom/).\ It is not distributed along with Libreboot yet. However, it is @@ -83,7 +83,7 @@ A tty prompt can be obtained by pressing **Ctrl + Alt + Next**. The Preparing the device for the installation Before installing Libreboot on the device, both its software and hardware has to be prepared to allow the installation procedure and to -ensure that security features don\'t get in the way. +ensure that security features don't get in the way. Configuring verified boot parameters {#configuring_verified_boot_parameters} @@ -164,7 +164,7 @@ The resulting flash image can then be flashed back:\ \# **flashrom -p host -w flash.img**\ You should also see within the output the following:\ -**\"Verifying flash\... VERIFIED.\"** +**"Verifying flash\... VERIFIED."** Shut down. The device will now boot to Libreboot. @@ -212,7 +212,7 @@ programmer):\ \# **flashrom -p *programmer* -w flash.img**\ You should also see within the output the following:\ -**\"Verifying flash\... VERIFIED.\"** +**"Verifying flash\... VERIFIED."** The device will now boot to Libreboot. diff --git a/docs/install/ga-g41m-es2l.md b/docs/install/ga-g41m-es2l.md @@ -23,9 +23,9 @@ Flashing instructions {#clip} Refer to [bbb\_setup.html](bbb_setup.html) for how to set up the BBB for external flashing. **You can only externally reprogram one of the chips -at a time, and you need to disable the chip that you\'re not flashing, +at a time, and you need to disable the chip that you're not flashing, by connecting 3v3 to /CS of that chip, so you will actually need 2 test -clips (you also need to connect GND on the chip that you\'re +clips (you also need to connect GND on the chip that you're disabling).** Here is an image of the flash chip:\ diff --git a/docs/install/index.md b/docs/install/index.md @@ -59,7 +59,7 @@ Information about libreboot ROM images {#rom} Libreboot distributes pre-compiled ROM images, built from the libreboot source code. These images are provided for user convenience, so that -they don\'t have to build anything from source on their own. +they don't have to build anything from source on their own. The ROM images in each archive use the following at the end of the file name, if they are built with the GRUB payload: @@ -72,7 +72,7 @@ used by coreboot native graphics initialization. *keymap* can be one of several keymaps that keyboard supports (there are quite a few), which affects the keyboard layout configuration that is -used in GRUB. It doesn\'t matter which ROM image you choose here, as far +used in GRUB. It doesn't matter which ROM image you choose here, as far as the keymap in GNU+Linux is concerned. Keymaps are named appropriately according to each keyboard layout @@ -195,7 +195,7 @@ Do check the HCL entry: [../hcl/kcma-d8.html](../hcl/kcma-d8.html) Intel D945GCLF? --------------- -If you\'re running the original Intel factory BIOS, then you will need +If you're running the original Intel factory BIOS, then you will need to flash externally. For instructions on how to do that, refer to [d945gclf.html](d945gclf.html). @@ -210,7 +210,7 @@ flash chip, please refer to [x60\_unbrick.html](x60_unbrick.html), [x60tablet\_unbrick.html](x60tablet_unbrick.html) or [t60\_unbrick.html](t60_unbrick.html). *This probably does not apply to you. Most people do not write-protect the flash chip, so you probably -didn\'t either.* +didn't either.* Similarly, it is possible to write-protect the flash chip in coreboot or libreboot on GM45 laptops (X200/R400/T400/T500). If you did this, then @@ -246,7 +246,7 @@ Apple iMac 5,2? Internal flashing works, even when flashing from Apple EFI to libreboot. Continue reading the instructions below. -**NOTE: If you\'re flashing an older version of Libreboot, the iMac5,2 +**NOTE: If you're flashing an older version of Libreboot, the iMac5,2 motherboard is compatible with the MacBook2,1. Simply flash a MacBook2,1 ROM image, and it should work.** @@ -285,7 +285,7 @@ correct ROM image, then run this alternative command:\ -You should see **\"Verifying flash\... VERIFIED.\"** written at the end +You should see **"Verifying flash\... VERIFIED."** written at the end of the flashrom output. **Shut down** after you see this, and then boot up again after a few seconds. @@ -315,7 +315,7 @@ and will not work on any other. For that, please refer to <http://www.coreboot.org/Board:lenovo/x60/Installation>.** -**If you\'re using libreboot 20150518, note that there is a mistake in +**If you're using libreboot 20150518, note that there is a mistake in the flashing script. do this: *rm -f patch && wget -O flash https://notabug.org/vimuser/libreboot/raw/9d850543ad90b72e0e333c98075530b31e5d23f1/flash && chmod +x flash*** @@ -326,14 +326,14 @@ The first half of the procedure is as follows:\ You should see within the output the following:\ -**\"Updated BUC.TS=1 - 64kb address ranges at 0xFFFE0000 and 0xFFFF0000 -are swapped\"**. +**"Updated BUC.TS=1 - 64kb address ranges at 0xFFFE0000 and 0xFFFF0000 +are swapped"**. You should also see within the output the following:\ -**\"Your flash chip is in an unknown state\"**, **\"FAILED\"** and -**\"DO NOT REBOOT OR POWEROFF\"**\ +**"Your flash chip is in an unknown state"**, **"FAILED"** and +**"DO NOT REBOOT OR POWEROFF"**\ Seeing this means that the operation was a **resounding** success! -**DON\'T PANIC**. +**DON'T PANIC**. See this link for more details: <http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.linux.bios.flashrom/575>. @@ -354,11 +354,11 @@ internal:laptop=force\_I\_want\_a\_brick -w [yourrom.rom](#rom)** You should see within the output the following:\ -**\"Updated BUC.TS=0 - 128kb address range 0xFFFE0000-0xFFFFFFFF is -untranslated\"** +**"Updated BUC.TS=0 - 128kb address range 0xFFFE0000-0xFFFFFFFF is +untranslated"** You should also see within the output the following:\ -**\"Verifying flash\... VERIFIED.\"** +**"Verifying flash\... VERIFIED."** [Back to top of page.](#pagetop) @@ -399,7 +399,7 @@ Use this flashing script, to install libreboot:\ You should also see within the output the following:\ -**\"Verifying flash\... VERIFIED.\"** +**"Verifying flash\... VERIFIED."** Shut down. diff --git a/docs/install/kgpe-d16.md b/docs/install/kgpe-d16.md @@ -27,7 +27,7 @@ TODO: show photos here, and other info. KGPE-D16 boards (and full systems) with libreboot preinstalled {#preinstall} ============================================================== -If you don\'t want to install libreboot yourself, companies exist that +If you don't want to install libreboot yourself, companies exist that sell these boards with libreboot pre-installed, along with a free GNU+Linux distribution. diff --git a/docs/install/r400_external.md b/docs/install/r400_external.md @@ -53,7 +53,7 @@ A note about GPUs ================= Some models have an Intel GPU, while others have both an ATI and an -Intel GPU; this is referred to as \"switchable graphics\". In the *BIOS +Intel GPU; this is referred to as "switchable graphics". In the *BIOS setup* program for lenovobios, you can specify that the system will use one or the other (but not both). @@ -144,7 +144,7 @@ Remove the palm rest and keyboard:\ Remove these screws, and then remove the bezel:\ ![](images/r400/0006.jpg) ![](images/r400/0007.jpg) -Remove the speaker screws, but don\'t remove the speakers yet (just set +Remove the speaker screws, but don't remove the speakers yet (just set them loose):\ ![](images/r400/0008.jpg) ![](images/r400/0009.jpg) ![](images/r400/0010.jpg) @@ -251,7 +251,7 @@ factory.rom**\ factory1.rom**\ \# **./flashrom -p linux\_spi:dev=/dev/spidev1.0,spispeed=512 -r factory2.rom**\ -Note: the **-c** option is not required in libreboot\'s patched +Note: the **-c** option is not required in libreboot's patched flashrom, because the redundant flash chip definitions in *flashchips.c* have been removed.\ Now compare the 3 images:\ @@ -276,7 +276,7 @@ path/to/libreboot/rom/image.rom -V** ![](images/x200/disassembly/0015.jpg) You might see errors, but if it says **Verifying flash\... VERIFIED** at -the end, then it\'s flashed and should boot. If you see errors, try +the end, then it's flashed and should boot. If you see errors, try again (and again, and again); the message **Chip content is identical to the requested image** is also an indication of a successful installation. @@ -331,7 +331,7 @@ Some R400 laptops might come with an Atheros chipset, but this is It is recommended that you install a new wifi chipset. This can only be done after installing libreboot, because the original firmware has a whitelist of approved chips, and it will refuse to boot if you use an -\'unauthorized\' wifi card. +'unauthorized' wifi card. The following photos show an Atheros AR5B95 being installed, to replace the Intel chip that this R400 came with:\ @@ -355,7 +355,7 @@ Memory ====== You need DDR3 SODIMM PC3-8500 RAM installed, in matching pairs -(speed/size). Non-matching pairs won\'t work. You can also install a +(speed/size). Non-matching pairs won't work. You can also install a single module (meaning, one of the slots will be empty) in slot 0. Make sure that the RAM you buy is the 2Rx8 density. diff --git a/docs/install/rpi_setup.md b/docs/install/rpi_setup.md @@ -69,7 +69,7 @@ B+ with 40 pins, start counting from the right and leave 14 pins): 8 3.3V *red* White [3.3V PSU RED](http://libreboot.org/docs/install/bbb_setup.html) 17 Make sure the pinouts are correct; otherwise, Flashrom will fail to -detect a chip, or it will \"detect\" a `0x0` chip. Finally, make sure +detect a chip, or it will "detect" a `0x0` chip. Finally, make sure that the Pomona clip makes contact with the metal wires of the chip. It can be a challenge, but keep trying. @@ -148,7 +148,7 @@ successfully. If not, just flash again. - [Scruss - Simple ADC with the Raspberry Pi](http://scruss.com/blog/2013/02/02/simple-adc-with-the-raspberry-pi/) - [Flashing coreboot on a T60 with a Raspberry Pi - - the\_unconventional\'s + the\_unconventional's blog](https://blogs.fsfe.org/the_unconventional/2015/05/08/flashing-coreboot-on-a-t60-with-a-raspberry-pi/) - **Pomona SOIC Clip flashing** - [Arch Linux Wiki - Installing Arch Linux on @@ -201,7 +201,7 @@ Download NOOBS from [The Raspberry Pi Foundation.](https://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads/) Torrent download recommended, and remember to seed. :) -If you\'re running Raspian, you can do **sudo raspi-config**, enable SPI +If you're running Raspian, you can do **sudo raspi-config**, enable SPI under Advanced and then spidev will be enabled. Simple, eh? [Download Libreboot from their releases @@ -227,7 +227,7 @@ Install Noobs to your fat32 formatted SD card ### [](#set-up-noobs-on-raspberry-pi){#user-content-set-up-noobs-on-raspberry-pi .anchor}Set up NOOBS on Raspberry Pi Plug in the NOOBs SDCard to your Raspberry Pi, and enable the following -under \'Advanced Options\': +under 'Advanced Options': SSH server @@ -318,9 +318,9 @@ At this point connect your SOIC clip to the rom chip before powering on your PI. Power on your Pi, and run the following. Ensure you swap out -\"your\_chip\_name\" with the proper name/model of your chip. Check that +"your\_chip\_name" with the proper name/model of your chip. Check that it can be read successfully. If you cannot read the chip and receive an -error similar to \"no EEPROM Detected\" or \"0x0 Chip detected\" then +error similar to "no EEPROM Detected" or "0x0 Chip detected" then you may want to try powering off your PI, and switching the two pins which are connected to the IO ports. I.E. Connect pins (clip)8 to (pi)19 and pins (clip)15 to (pi)21 @@ -336,13 +336,13 @@ and pins (clip)15 to (pi)21 pi# sha512sum romread*.rom If they are identical sha512 hashes then you can generally assume that -it\'s safe to flash your rom. +it's safe to flash your rom. pi# ./flashrom -p linux_spi:dev=/dev/spidev0.0,spispeed=512 --chip <your_chip_name> -w libreboot.rom It may fail a couple times, but keep at it and when you get the message `Verifying flash... Verified` or -`Warning: Chip content is identical to the requested image` then you\'re +`Warning: Chip content is identical to the requested image` then you're done. Shut down your pi, put your box back together, and install a libre OS @@ -367,7 +367,7 @@ GPIO Pinouts: ![](images/rpi/0009.png) ![](images/rpi/0010.png) -> \*Diagram made by [\"Pacman\" from Win-Raid +> \*Diagram made by ["Pacman" from Win-Raid > Forums\*](http://www.win-raid.com/t58f16-Guide-Recover-from-failed-BIOS-flash-using-Raspberry-PI.html) SOIC Pinouts: @@ -382,7 +382,7 @@ clip). ![SOIC Pinouts for C720 Chromebook](images/rpi/0003.png) -(C720 Only?) The diagram depicts a \"bridged\" connection. You will need +(C720 Only?) The diagram depicts a "bridged" connection. You will need to fashion one with some copper wire: ![Bridged wires](images/rpi/0004.jpg) @@ -395,7 +395,7 @@ Plug in the other end of the wires to the Raspberry Pi as shown below: ![Raspberry Pi connections](images/rpi/0006.jpg) -(C720 only?) Plug in the \"bridged\" wires as shown below: +(C720 only?) Plug in the "bridged" wires as shown below: ![Bridged wires connected](images/rpi/0007.jpg) @@ -405,7 +405,7 @@ Finally, put the Pomona SOIC clip on the chip: ### [](#flashrom){#user-content-flashrom .anchor}Flashrom -[Once it\'s all set up, flashrom works out of the +[Once it's all set up, flashrom works out of the box.](http://www.flashrom.org/RaspberryPi) ### [](#sources-1){#user-content-sources-1 .anchor}Sources diff --git a/docs/install/t400_external.md b/docs/install/t400_external.md @@ -9,10 +9,10 @@ they still have the original Lenovo BIOS present. This guide can also be followed (adapted) if you brick your T400, to know how to recover. An -[\"HMM\"](https://download.lenovo.com/ibmdl/pub/pc/pccbbs/mobiles_pdf/43y6629_05.pdf#page=386) +["HMM"](https://download.lenovo.com/ibmdl/pub/pc/pccbbs/mobiles_pdf/43y6629_05.pdf#page=386) (Hardware Maintenance Manual) detailing the process of \[dis\]assembly is available for this model. Be careful when reassembling the laptop as -the screws on page 144 (with title \"1130 Keyboard bezel\") are swapped +the screws on page 144 (with title "1130 Keyboard bezel") are swapped and if you follow the HMM you will punch a hole through the bezel in the upper right corner. @@ -22,7 +22,7 @@ upper right corner. T400 laptops with libreboot pre-installed {#preinstall} ========================================= -If you don\'t want to install libreboot yourself, companies exist that +If you don't want to install libreboot yourself, companies exist that sell these laptops with libreboot pre-installed, along with a free GNU+Linux distribution. @@ -58,7 +58,7 @@ A note about GPUs ================= Some models have an Intel GPU, while others have both an ATI and an -Intel GPU; this is referred to as \"switchable graphics\". In the *BIOS +Intel GPU; this is referred to as "switchable graphics". In the *BIOS setup* program for lenovobios, you can specify that the system will use one or the other (but not both). @@ -257,7 +257,7 @@ factory.rom**\ factory1.rom**\ \# **./flashrom -p linux\_spi:dev=/dev/spidev1.0,spispeed=512 -r factory2.rom**\ -Note: the **-c** option is not required in libreboot\'s patched +Note: the **-c** option is not required in libreboot's patched flashrom, because the redundant flash chip definitions in *flashchips.c* have been removed.\ Now compare the 3 images:\ @@ -282,7 +282,7 @@ path/to/libreboot/rom/image.rom -V** ![](images/x200/disassembly/0015.jpg) You might see errors, but if it says **Verifying flash\... VERIFIED** at -the end, then it\'s flashed and should boot. If you see errors, try +the end, then it's flashed and should boot. If you see errors, try again (and again, and again); the message **Chip content is identical to the requested image** is also an indication of a successful installation. @@ -337,7 +337,7 @@ Some T400 laptops might come with an Atheros chipset, but this is It is recommended that you install a new wifi chipset. This can only be done after installing libreboot, because the original firmware has a whitelist of approved chips, and it will refuse to boot if you use an -\'unauthorized\' wifi card. +'unauthorized' wifi card. The following photos show an Atheros AR5B95 being installed, to replace the Intel chip that this T400 came with:\ @@ -361,7 +361,7 @@ Memory ====== You need DDR3 SODIMM PC3-8500 RAM installed, in matching pairs -(speed/size). Non-matching pairs won\'t work. You can also install a +(speed/size). Non-matching pairs won't work. You can also install a single module (meaning, one of the slots will be empty) in slot 0. Make sure that the RAM you buy is the 2Rx8 density. diff --git a/docs/install/t500_external.md b/docs/install/t500_external.md @@ -48,7 +48,7 @@ A note about GPUs ================= Some models have an Intel GPU, while others have both an ATI and an -Intel GPU; this is referred to as \"switchable graphics\". In the *BIOS +Intel GPU; this is referred to as "switchable graphics". In the *BIOS setup* program for lenovobios, you can specify that the system will use one or the other (but not both). @@ -166,7 +166,7 @@ Remove the NVRAM battery (already removed in this photo):\ ![](images/t500/0026.jpg) When you re-assemble, you will be replacing the wifi chip with another. -These two screws don\'t hold anything together, but they are included in +These two screws don't hold anything together, but they are included in your system because the screw holes for half-height cards are a different size, so use these if you will be installing a half-height card:\ @@ -262,7 +262,7 @@ factory.rom**\ factory1.rom**\ \# **./flashrom -p linux\_spi:dev=/dev/spidev1.0,spispeed=512 -r factory2.rom**\ -Note: the **-c** option is not required in libreboot\'s patched +Note: the **-c** option is not required in libreboot's patched flashrom, because the redundant flash chip definitions in *flashchips.c* have been removed.\ Now compare the 3 images:\ @@ -287,7 +287,7 @@ path/to/libreboot/rom/image.rom -V** ![](images/x200/disassembly/0015.jpg) You might see errors, but if it says **Verifying flash\... VERIFIED** at -the end, then it\'s flashed and should boot. If you see errors, try +the end, then it's flashed and should boot. If you see errors, try again (and again, and again); the message **Chip content is identical to the requested image** is also an indication of a successful installation. @@ -342,7 +342,7 @@ Some T500 laptops might come with an Atheros chipset, but this is It is recommended that you install a new wifi chipset. This can only be done after installing libreboot, because the original firmware has a whitelist of approved chips, and it will refuse to boot if you use an -\'unauthorized\' wifi card. +'unauthorized' wifi card. The following photos show an Atheros AR5B95 being installed, to replace the Intel chip that this T500 came with:\ @@ -366,7 +366,7 @@ Memory ====== You need DDR3 SODIMM PC3-8500 RAM installed, in matching pairs -(speed/size). Non-matching pairs won\'t work. You can also install a +(speed/size). Non-matching pairs won't work. You can also install a single module (meaning, one of the slots will be empty) in slot 0. Make sure that the RAM you buy is the 2Rx8 density. diff --git a/docs/install/t60_unbrick.md b/docs/install/t60_unbrick.md @@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ Table of Contents - Types of brick: - [Brick type 1: bucts not reset](#bucts_brick) - - [Brick type 2: bad rom (or user error), system won\'t + - [Brick type 2: bad rom (or user error), system won't boot](#recovery) @@ -23,11 +23,11 @@ Brick type 1: bucts not reset. {#bucts_brick} ============================== You still have Lenovo BIOS, or you had libreboot running and you flashed -another ROM; and you had bucts 1 set and the ROM wasn\'t dd\'d.\* or if -Lenovo BIOS was present and libreboot wasn\'t flashed.\ +another ROM; and you had bucts 1 set and the ROM wasn't dd'd.\* or if +Lenovo BIOS was present and libreboot wasn't flashed.\ \ In this case, unbricking is easy: reset BUC.TS to 0 by removing that -yellow cmos coin (it\'s a battery) and putting it back after a minute or +yellow cmos coin (it's a battery) and putting it back after a minute or two:\ ![](../images/t60_dev/0006.JPG)\ \ @@ -47,7 +47,7 @@ but instructions for t60 are identical) -bad rom (or user error), system won\'t boot {#recovery} +bad rom (or user error), system won't boot {#recovery} =========================================== In this scenario, you compiled a ROM that had an incorrect @@ -56,8 +56,8 @@ booting. Or, maybe, you set BUC.TS to 0 and shut down after first flash while Lenovo BIOS was running. In any case, your system is bricked and will not boot at all. -\"Unbricking\" means flashing a known-good (working) ROM. The problem: -you can\'t boot the system, making this difficult. In this situation, +"Unbricking" means flashing a known-good (working) ROM. The problem: +you can't boot the system, making this difficult. In this situation, external hardware (see hardware requirements above) is needed which can flash the SPI chip (where libreboot resides). @@ -132,11 +132,11 @@ system:\ Now wire up the BBB and the Pomona with your PSU.\ Refer to [bbb\_setup.html](bbb_setup.html) for how to setup the BBB for flashing.\ -**Note, the guide mentions a 3.3v DC PSU but you don\'t need this on the -T60: if you don\'t have or don\'t want to use an external PSU, then make +**Note, the guide mentions a 3.3v DC PSU but you don't need this on the +T60: if you don't have or don't want to use an external PSU, then make sure not to connect the 3.3v leads mentioned in the guide; instead, connect the AC adapter (the one that normally charges your battery) so -that the board has power (but don\'t boot it up)**\ +that the board has power (but don't boot it up)**\ ![](../images/t60_dev/0030.JPG)\ Correlate the following with the BBB guide linked above: @@ -156,7 +156,7 @@ Flashrom binaries for ARM (tested on a BBB) are distributed in libreboot\_util. Alternatively, libreboot also distributes flashrom source code which can be built. -SSH\'d into the BBB:\ +SSH'd into the BBB:\ \# **./flashrom -p linux\_spi:dev=/dev/spidev1.0,spispeed=512 -w yourrom.rom** @@ -207,7 +207,7 @@ It lives!\ ![](../images/t60_dev/0071.JPG) ![](../images/t60_dev/0072.JPG) ![](../images/t60_dev/0073.JPG) -Always stress test (\'stress -c 2\' and xsensors. below 90C is ok) when +Always stress test ('stress -c 2' and xsensors. below 90C is ok) when replacing cpu paste/heatsink:\ ![](../images/t60_dev/0074.JPG) diff --git a/docs/install/x200_external.md b/docs/install/x200_external.md @@ -24,7 +24,7 @@ followed (adapted) if you brick your X200, to know how to recover. X200 laptops with libreboot pre-installed {#preinstall} ========================================= -If you don\'t want to install libreboot yourself, companies exist that +If you don't want to install libreboot yourself, companies exist that sell these laptops with libreboot pre-installed, along with a free GNU+Linux distribution. @@ -191,7 +191,7 @@ factory.rom**\ factory1.rom**\ \# **./flashrom -p linux\_spi:dev=/dev/spidev1.0,spispeed=512 -r factory2.rom**\ -Note: the **-c** option is not required in libreboot\'s patched +Note: the **-c** option is not required in libreboot's patched flashrom, because the redundant flash chip definitions in *flashchips.c* have been removed.\ Now compare the 3 images:\ @@ -216,7 +216,7 @@ path/to/libreboot/rom/image.rom -V** ![](images/x200/disassembly/0015.jpg) You might see errors, but if it says **Verifying flash\... VERIFIED** at -the end, then it\'s flashed and should boot. If you see errors, try +the end, then it's flashed and should boot. If you see errors, try again (and again, and again); the message **Chip content is identical to the requested image** is also an indication of a successful installation. @@ -252,7 +252,7 @@ only. It is recommended that you install a new wifi chipset. This can only be done after installing libreboot, because the original firmware has a whitelist of approved chips, and it will refuse to boot if you use an -\'unauthorized\' wifi card. +'unauthorized' wifi card. The following photos show an Atheros AR5B95 being installed, to replace the Intel chip that this X200 came with:\ @@ -277,7 +277,7 @@ Memory ====== You need DDR3 SODIMM PC3-8500 RAM installed, in matching pairs -(speed/size). Non-matching pairs won\'t work. You can also install a +(speed/size). Non-matching pairs won't work. You can also install a single module (meaning, one of the slots will be empty) in slot 0. NOTE: according to users repors, non matching pairs (e.g. 1+2 GiB) might @@ -309,7 +309,7 @@ disable the flashing protections by the descriptor and stop the ME from starting (which itself interferes with flashing attempts). The theory was proven correct; however, it is still useless in practise. -Look just above the 7 in TP37 (that\'s GPIO33):\ +Look just above the 7 in TP37 (that's GPIO33):\ ![](../hcl/images/x200/gpio33_location.jpg) By default we would see this in lenovobios, when trying flashrom -p @@ -334,7 +334,7 @@ The part in bold is what got us. This was still observed: It is actually possible to disable these protections. Lenovobios does, when updating the BIOS (proprietary one). One possible way to go about this would be to debug the BIOS update utility from Lenovo, to find out -how it\'s disabling these protections. Some more research is available +how it's disabling these protections. Some more research is available here: <http://www.coreboot.org/Board:lenovo/x200/internal_flashing_research> diff --git a/docs/install/x60_unbrick.md b/docs/install/x60_unbrick.md @@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ Table of Contents - Types of brick: - [Brick type 1: bucts not reset](#bucts_brick) - - [Brick type 2: bad rom (or user error), system won\'t + - [Brick type 2: bad rom (or user error), system won't boot](#recovery) @@ -23,11 +23,11 @@ Brick type 1: bucts not reset. {#bucts_brick} ============================== You still have Lenovo BIOS, or you had libreboot running and you flashed -another ROM; and you had bucts 1 set and the ROM wasn\'t dd\'d.\* or if -Lenovo BIOS was present and libreboot wasn\'t flashed.\ +another ROM; and you had bucts 1 set and the ROM wasn't dd'd.\* or if +Lenovo BIOS was present and libreboot wasn't flashed.\ \ In this case, unbricking is easy: reset BUC.TS to 0 by removing that -yellow cmos coin (it\'s a battery) and putting it back after a minute or +yellow cmos coin (it's a battery) and putting it back after a minute or two:\ ![](../images/x60_unbrick/0004.jpg)\ \ @@ -46,7 +46,7 @@ still has Lenovo BIOS running, using those instructions: -bad rom (or user error), system won\'t boot {#recovery} +bad rom (or user error), system won't boot {#recovery} =========================================== In this scenario, you compiled a ROM that had an incorrect @@ -55,8 +55,8 @@ booting. Or, maybe, you set BUC.TS to 0 and shut down after first flash while Lenovo BIOS was running. In any case, your system is bricked and will not boot at all. -\"Unbricking\" means flashing a known-good (working) ROM. The problem: -you can\'t boot the system, making this difficult. In this situation, +"Unbricking" means flashing a known-good (working) ROM. The problem: +you can't boot the system, making this difficult. In this situation, external hardware (see hardware requirements above) is needed which can flash the SPI chip (where libreboot resides). @@ -116,11 +116,11 @@ flash chip:\ Now wire up the BBB and the Pomona with your PSU.\ Refer to [bbb\_setup.html](bbb_setup.html) for how to setup the BBB for flashing.\ -**Note, the guide mentions a 3.3v DC PSU but you don\'t need this on the -X60: if you don\'t have or don\'t want to use an external PSU, then make +**Note, the guide mentions a 3.3v DC PSU but you don't need this on the +X60: if you don't have or don't want to use an external PSU, then make sure not to connect the 3.3v leads mentioned in the guide; instead, connect the AC adapter (the one that normally charges your battery) so -that the board has power (but don\'t boot it up)** +that the board has power (but don't boot it up)** ![](../images/x60_unbrick/0017.jpg)\ Correlate the following with the BBB guide linked above: @@ -141,7 +141,7 @@ Flashrom binaries for ARM (tested on a BBB) are distributed in libreboot\_util. Alternatively, libreboot also distributes flashrom source code which can be built. -SSH\'d into the BBB:\ +SSH'd into the BBB:\ \# **./flashrom -p linux\_spi:dev=/dev/spidev1.0,spispeed=512 -w yourrom.rom** @@ -195,7 +195,7 @@ Route the antenna and modem cables neatly like so:\ ![](../images/x60_unbrick/0039.jpg) Connect the wifi antenna cables. At the start of the tutorial, this -system had an Intel wifi chip. Here you see I\'ve replaced it with an +system had an Intel wifi chip. Here you see I've replaced it with an Atheros AR5B95 (supports 802.11n and can be used without blobs):\ ![](../images/x60_unbrick/0040.jpg) diff --git a/docs/install/x60tablet_unbrick.md b/docs/install/x60tablet_unbrick.md @@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ Table of Contents - Types of brick: - [Brick type 1: bucts not reset](#bucts_brick) - - [Brick type 2: bad rom (or user error), system won\'t + - [Brick type 2: bad rom (or user error), system won't boot](#recovery) @@ -23,11 +23,11 @@ Brick type 1: bucts not reset. {#bucts_brick} ============================== You still have Lenovo BIOS, or you had libreboot running and you flashed -another ROM; and you had bucts 1 set and the ROM wasn\'t dd\'d.\* or if -Lenovo BIOS was present and libreboot wasn\'t flashed.\ +another ROM; and you had bucts 1 set and the ROM wasn't dd'd.\* or if +Lenovo BIOS was present and libreboot wasn't flashed.\ \ In this case, unbricking is easy: reset BUC.TS to 0 by removing that -yellow cmos coin (it\'s a battery) and putting it back after a minute or +yellow cmos coin (it's a battery) and putting it back after a minute or two:\ ![](../images/x60t_unbrick/0008.JPG)\ \ @@ -46,7 +46,7 @@ still has Lenovo BIOS running, using those instructions: -bad rom (or user error), system won\'t boot {#recovery} +bad rom (or user error), system won't boot {#recovery} =========================================== In this scenario, you compiled a ROM that had an incorrect @@ -55,8 +55,8 @@ booting. Or, maybe, you set BUC.TS to 0 and shut down after first flash while Lenovo BIOS was running. In any case, your system is bricked and will not boot at all. -\"Unbricking\" means flashing a known-good (working) ROM. The problem: -you can\'t boot the system, making this difficult. In this situation, +"Unbricking" means flashing a known-good (working) ROM. The problem: +you can't boot the system, making this difficult. In this situation, external hardware (see hardware requirements above) is needed which can flash the SPI chip (where libreboot resides). @@ -95,11 +95,11 @@ Remove that screw and then remove the board:\ Now wire up the BBB and the Pomona with your PSU.\ Refer to [bbb\_setup.html](bbb_setup.html) for how to setup the BBB for flashing.\ -**Note, the guide mentions a 3.3v DC PSU but you don\'t need this on the -X60 Tablet: if you don\'t have or don\'t want to use an external PSU, +**Note, the guide mentions a 3.3v DC PSU but you don't need this on the +X60 Tablet: if you don't have or don't want to use an external PSU, then make sure not to connect the 3.3v leads mentioned in the guide; instead, connect the AC adapter (the one that normally charges your -battery) so that the board has power (but don\'t boot it up)** +battery) so that the board has power (but don't boot it up)** ![](../images/x60t_unbrick/0011.JPG)\ Correlate the following with the BBB guide linked above: @@ -120,7 +120,7 @@ Flashrom binaries for ARM (tested on a BBB) are distributed in libreboot\_util. Alternatively, libreboot also distributes flashrom source code which can be built. -SSH\'d into the BBB:\ +SSH'd into the BBB:\ \# **./flashrom -p linux\_spi:dev=/dev/spidev1.0,spispeed=512 -w yourrom.rom** diff --git a/docs/misc/bbb_ehci.md b/docs/misc/bbb_ehci.md @@ -13,14 +13,14 @@ EHCI debugging debug](#FindUSBportonthetargetthatsupportsEHCIdebug) 2. [Initial setup of BBB to act as EHCI debug dongle](#InitialsetupofBBBtoactasEHCIdebugdongle) -3. [Patch BBB\'s `g_dbgp` module (optional, but highly +3. [Patch BBB's `g_dbgp` module (optional, but highly recommended)](#PatchBBBsgdbgpmoduleoptionalbuthighlyrecommended) 4. [Configure libreboot with EHCI debug](#ConfigurelibrebootwithEHCIdebug) 1. [Selecting `HCD Index` and `USB Debug port`](#SelectingHCDIndexandUSBDebugport) 5. [How to get the debug logs](#Howtogetthedebuglogs) -6. [Eneble EHCI Debug on the target\'s kernel (optional, +6. [Eneble EHCI Debug on the target's kernel (optional, recommended)](#EnebleEHCIDebugonthetargetskerneloptionalrecommended) 7. [References](#References) @@ -173,9 +173,9 @@ arm-linux-gnueabihf setup on your *host*. - Set proper version number: - On your host, edit \$work\_dir/kernel/kernel/.config (the one you've just copied from BBB), find the line - CONFIG\_LOCALVERSION=\"&lt;something or empty&gt;\" and change - it to CONFIG\_LOCALVERSION=\"-\$lv\", so it will look something - like: CONFIG\_LOCALVERSION=\"-bone70\" + CONFIG\_LOCALVERSION="&lt;something or empty&gt;" and change + it to CONFIG\_LOCALVERSION="-\$lv", so it will look something + like: CONFIG\_LOCALVERSION="-bone70" - Also, make sure that: CONFIG\_USB\_G\_DBGP=m (If not, make menuconfig, and set @Device Drivers-&gt; USB Support -&gt; USB Gadget Support -&gt; EHCI Debug Device Gadget=m diff --git a/docs/misc/index.md b/docs/misc/index.md @@ -26,7 +26,7 @@ High Pitched Whining Noise on Idle (how to remove in Debian or Devuan) {#debian_ Start powertop automatically at boot time {#debian_powertop_autostart} ----------------------------------------- -Included with libreboot is a script called \'powertop.debian\'. Run this +Included with libreboot is a script called 'powertop.debian'. Run this as root and it will setup powertop to run with \--auto-tune at boot time. Load the file in your text editor to see how it does that. @@ -34,7 +34,7 @@ time. Load the file in your text editor to see how it does that. Might want to run with \--calibrate first -If powertop doesn\'t work, another way (reduces battery life slightly) +If powertop doesn't work, another way (reduces battery life slightly) is to add *processor.max\_cstate=2* to the *linux* line in grub.cfg, using [this guide](../gnulinux/grub_cbfs.html). @@ -48,11 +48,11 @@ High Pitched Whining Noise on Idle (how to remove in Parabola) {#high_pitch_para The following removes most of the noise. It reduces what is a high frequency whine (that not everyone can hear) to a slight buzz (which -most people can\'t hear or doesn\'t bother most people). +most people can't hear or doesn't bother most people). This is not perfect! The full solution is still not discovered but this is a step towards that. Also, in some instances you will need to run -\'sudo powertop \--auto-tune\' again. This needs to be implemented +'sudo powertop \--auto-tune' again. This needs to be implemented properly in coreboot itself! On the X60 with coreboot or libreboot, there is a high pitched sound @@ -88,7 +88,7 @@ The next time you boot the system, the buzz will be gone. Might want to run with \--calibrate first -If powertop doesn\'t work, another way (reduces battery life slightly) +If powertop doesn't work, another way (reduces battery life slightly) is to add *processor.max\_cstate=2* to the *linux* line in grub.cfg, using [this guide](../gnulinux/grub_cbfs.html). @@ -99,11 +99,11 @@ using [this guide](../gnulinux/grub_cbfs.html). X60/T60: Serial port - how to use (for dock owners) {#serial} =================================================== -For the Thinkpad X60 you can use the **\"UltraBase X6\"** dock (for the +For the Thinkpad X60 you can use the **"UltraBase X6"** dock (for the X60 Tablet it is called X6 Tablet UltraBase). For the ThinkPad T60, you -can use the **\"Advanced Mini Dock\"**. +can use the **"Advanced Mini Dock"**. -If you are using one of the ROM images with \'serial\' in the name, then +If you are using one of the ROM images with 'serial' in the name, then you have serial port enabled in libreboot and you have memtest86+ included inside the ROM. Connect your null modem cable to the serial port on the dock and connect the other end to a 2nd system using your @@ -253,7 +253,7 @@ package i2c-tools.\ \$ **sudo i2cdump -y 5 0x50** (you might have to change the value for -y)\ \$ **sudo rmmod i2c-dev**\ -You\'ll see the panel name in the output (from the EDID dump). +You'll see the panel name in the output (from the EDID dump). If neither of these options work (or they are unavailable), physically removing the LCD panel is an option. Usually, there will be information @@ -276,7 +276,7 @@ Possible workaround, tested by Nazara: Disable C-STATES.\ means that your CPU will now be running at full capacity (and therefore using more power) non-stop, which will drain battery life if this is a laptop. If power usage is a concern, then you should not use this. -(we\'re also not sure whether this workaround is appropriate)** +(we're also not sure whether this workaround is appropriate)** To disable c-states, do this in GNU+Linux:\ **for i in /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu/cpuidle/state/disable; do echo 1 diff --git a/docs/misc/patch.md b/docs/misc/patch.md @@ -2,7 +2,7 @@ Diff and patch ============== -This is just a quick guide for reference, use \'man\' to know more. +This is just a quick guide for reference, use 'man' to know more. [Back to index](./) @@ -11,18 +11,18 @@ This is just a quick guide for reference, use \'man\' to know more. Apply a patch ============= -To apply a patch to a single file, do that in it\'s directory:\ +To apply a patch to a single file, do that in it's directory:\ **\$ patch &lt; foo.patch** Assuming that the patch is distributed in unified format identifying the file the patch should be applied to, the above will work. Otherwise:\ **\$ patch foo.txt &lt; bar.patch** -You can apply a patch to an entire directory, but note the \"p level\". +You can apply a patch to an entire directory, but note the "p level". What this means is that inside patch files will be the files that you intend to patch, identified by path names that might be different when the files ane located on your own computer instead of on the computer -where the patch was created. \'p\' level instructs the \'patch\' utility +where the patch was created. 'p' level instructs the 'patch' utility to ignore parts of the path name to identify the files correctly. Usually a p level of 1 will work, so you would use:\ **\$ patch -p1 &lt; baz.patch** @@ -52,7 +52,7 @@ Create a patch with diff Diff can create a patch for a single file:\ **\$ diff -u original.c new.c &gt; original.patch** -For diff\'ing a source tree:\ +For diff'ing a source tree:\ **\$ cp -R original new** Do whatever you want in new/ and then diff it:\ @@ -67,7 +67,7 @@ git diff git is something special. -Note: this won\'t show new files created. +Note: this won't show new files created. Just make whatever changes you want to a git clone and then:\ **\$ git diff &gt; patch.git** diff --git a/docs/release.md b/docs/release.md @@ -29,7 +29,7 @@ This release adds one new mainboard to libreboot: Other bugfixes: - Various improvements to the documentation -- re-added \"unset superusers\" to the grub.cfg, which was needed for +- re-added "unset superusers" to the grub.cfg, which was needed for some users depending on the distros that they used Libreboot 20160902 {#release20160922} @@ -76,13 +76,13 @@ Machines supported in this release: support - See ***docs/hcl/\#supported\_x60t\_list*** for list of supported LCD panels - - It is unknown whether an X61 Tablet can have it\'s mainboard + - It is unknown whether an X61 Tablet can have it's mainboard replaced with an X60 Tablet motherboard. - **ThinkPad T60** (Intel GPU) (there are issues; see below): - See notes below for exceptions, and ***docs/hcl/\#supported\_t60\_list*** for known working LCD panels. - - It is unknown whether a T61 can have it\'s mainboard replaced + - It is unknown whether a T61 can have it's mainboard replaced with a T60 motherboard. - See ***docs/future/\#t60\_cpu\_microcode***. - T60P (and T60 laptops with ATI GPU) will likely never be